- Healy, John J.

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# Healy, John J.

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Healy, John J.

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Healy, John J.

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- PublicationAutomated Filter Selection for Suppression of Gibbs Ringing Artefacts in MRIGibbs ringing creates artefacts in magnetic resonance images that can mislead clinicians. Reconstruction algorithms attempt to suppress Gibbs ringing, or an additional ringing suppression algorithm may be applied post reconstruction. Novel reconstruction algorithms are often compared with filtered Fourier reconstruction, but the choices of filters and filter parameters can be arbitrary and sub-optimal. Evaluation of different reconstruction and post-processing algorithms is difficult to automate or subjective: many metrics have been used in the literature. In this paper, we evaluate twelve of those metrics and demonstrate that none of them are fit for purpose. We propose a novel metric and demonstrate its efficacy in 1D and 2D simulations. We use our new metric to optimise and compare 17 smoothing filters for suppression of Gibbs artefacts. We examine the transfer functions of the optimised filters, with counter-intuitive results regarding the highest-performing filters. Our results will simplify and improve the comparison of novel MRI reconstruction and post-processing algorithms, and lead to the automation of ringing suppression in MRI. They also apply more generally to other applications in which data is captured in the Fourier domain.
9 - PublicationCross terms of the Wigner distribution function and aliasing in numerical simulations of paraxial optical systemsSampling a function periodically replicates its spectrum. As a bilinear function of the signal, the associated Wigner distribution function contains cross terms between the replicas. Often neglected, these cross terms affect numerical simulations of paraxial optical systems. We develop expressions for these cross terms and show their effect on an example calculation
447Scopus© Citations 11 - PublicationUnitary Algorithm for Nonseparable Linear Canonical Transforms Applied to Iterative Phase RetrievalAbstract:Phase retrieval is an important tool with broad applications in optics. The GerchbergSaxton algorithm has been a workhorse in this area for many years. The algorithm extracts phase information from intensities captured in two planes related by a Fourier transform. The ability to capture the two intensities in domains other than the image and Fourier plains adds flexibility; various authors have extended the algorithm to extract phase from intensities captured in two planes related by other optical transforms, e.g., by free space propagation or a fractional Fourier transform. These generalizations are relatively simple once a unitary discrete transform is available to propagate back and forth between the two measurement planes. In the absence of such a unitary transform, errors accumulate quickly as the algorithm propagates back and forth between the two planes. Unitary transforms are available for many separable systems, but there has been limited work reported on nonseparable systems other than the gyrator transform. In this letter, we simulate a nonseparable system in a unitary way by choosing an advantageous sampling rate related to the system parameters. We demonstrate a simulation of phase retrieval from intensities in the image domain and a second domain related to the image domain by a nonseparable linear canonical transform. This work may permit the use of nonseparable systems in many design problems.
658Scopus© Citations 23 - PublicationThe choice of optical system is critical for the security of double random phase encryption systems(Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE), 2017-06-14)
; ; ; ; ; ; ; The linear canonical transform (LCT) is used in modeling a coherent light field propagation through first-order optical systems. Recently, a generic optical system, known as the Quadratic Phase Encoding System (QPES), for encrypting a two-dimensional (2D) image has been reported. In such systems, two random phase keys and the individual LCT parameters (, , ) serve as secret keys of the cryptosystem. It is important that such encryption systems also satisfies some dynamic security properties. In this work, we therefore examine such systems using two cryptographic evaluation methods, the avalanche effect and bit independence criterion, which indicate the degree of security of the cryptographic algorithms using QPES. We compared our simulation results with the conventional Fourier and the Fresnel transform based DRPE systems. The results show that the LCT based DRPE has an excellent avalanche and bit independence characteristics compared to the conventional Fourier and Fresnel based encryption systems.Keywords: Quadratic Phase Encoding system, linear canonical transform, Double Random Phase Encryption, Avalanche effect and bit independence criterion.478Scopus© Citations 2 - PublicationAdditional sampling criterion for the linear canonical transformThe linear canonical transform describes the effect of ﬁrst-order quadratic phase optical systems on a wave ﬁeld. Several recent papers have developed sampling rules for the numerical approximation of the transform. However, sampling an analog function according to existing rules will not generally permit the reconstruction of the analog linear canonical transform of that function from its samples. To achieve this, an additional sampling criterion has been developed for sampling both the input and the output wave ﬁelds.
372Scopus© Citations 43 - PublicationFast linear canonical transformsThe linear canonical transform provides a mathematical model of paraxial propagation though quadratic phase systems. We review the literature on numerical approximation of this transform, including discretization, sampling, and fast algorithms, and identify key results. We then propose a frequency-division fast linear canonical transform algorithm comparable to the Sande–Tukey fast Fourier transform. Results calculated with an implementation of this algorithm are presented and compared with the corresponding analytic functions.
1051Scopus© Citations 78 - PublicationSpace-bandwidth ratio as a means of choosing between Fresnel and other linear canonical transform algorithmsThe product of the spatial and spatial frequency extents of a wave field has proven useful in the analysis of the sampling requirements of numerical simulations. We propose that the ratio of these quantities is also illuminating. We have shown that the distance at which the so-called “direct method” becomes more efficient than the so-called “spectral method” for simulations of Fresnel transforms may be written in terms of this space-bandwidth ratio. We have proposed generalizations of these algorithms for numerical simulations of general ABCD systems and derived expressions for the “transition space-bandwidth ratio” above which the generalization of the spectral method is the more efficient algorithm and below which the generalization of the direct method is preferable.
485Scopus© Citations 31 - PublicationDigital computation of the complex linear canonical transform(Optical Society of America, 2011-07-01)
; ; ; ; ; An efficient algorithm for the accurate computation of the linear canonical transform with complex transform parameters and with complex output variable is presented. Sampling issues are discussed and the requirements for different cases given. Simulations are provided to validate the results.499Scopus© Citations 11 - PublicationCases where the linear canonical transform of a signal has compact support or is band-limitedA signal may have compact support, be band-limited (i.e., its Fourier transform has compact support), or neither (“unbounded”). We determine conditions for the linear canonical transform of a signal having these properties. We examine the significance of these conditions for special cases of the linear canonical transform and consider the physical significance of our results
366Scopus© Citations 52 - PublicationReevaluation of the direct method of calculating Fresnel and other linear canonical transformsThe linear canonical transform may be used to simulate the effect of paraxial optical systems on wave fields. Using a recent definition of the discrete linear canonical transform, phase space diagram analyses of the sampling requirements of the direct method of calculating the Fresnel and other linear canonical transforms are more favorable than previously thought. Thus the direct method of calculating these Transforms may be used with fewer samples than previously reported simply by making use of an appropriate reconstruction filter on the samples output by the algorithm.
374Scopus© Citations 39