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    A wideband 2x 13-bit all-digital I/Q RF-DAC
    This paper presents a wideband 2 ×13-bit in-phase/quadrature-phase (I/Q) RF digital-to-analog converter-based all-digital modulator realized in 65-nm CMOS. The isolation between I and Q paths is guaranteed employing 25% duty-cycle differential quadrature clocks. With a 1.3-V supply and an on-chip power combiner, the digital I/Q transmitter provides more than 21-dBm RF output power within a frequency range of 1.36-2.51 GHz. The peak RF output power, overall system, and drain efficiencies of the modulator are 22.8 dBm, 34%, and 42%, respectively. The measured static noise floor is below -160 dBc/Hz. The digital I/Q RF modulator demonstrates an IQ image rejection and local oscillator leakage of -65 and -68 dBc, respectively. It could be linearized using either of the two digital predistortion (DPD) approaches: a memoryless polynomial or a lookup table. Its linearity is examined using single-carrier 4/16/64/256/1024 quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), as well as multi-carrier 256-QAM orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing baseband signals while their related modulation bandwidth can be as high as 154 MHz. Employing DPD improves the third-order intermodulation product (IM3) by more than 25 dB, while the measured error vector magnitude for a “single-carrier 22-MHz 64-QAM” signal is better than -28 dB.
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