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- PublicationParacrine signalling of inflammatory cytokines from an in vitro blood brain barrier model upon exposure to polymeric nanoparticlesNanoparticle properties, such as small size relative to large highly modifiable surface area, offer great promise for neuro-therapeutics and nanodiagnostics. A fundamental understanding and control of how nanoparticles interact with the blood-brain barrier (BBB) could enable major developments in nanomedical treatment of previously intractable neurological disorders, and help ensure that nanoparticles not intended to reach the brain do not cause adverse effects. Nanosafety is of utmost importance to this field. However, a distinct lack of knowledge exists regarding nanoparticle accumulation within the BBB and the biological effects this may induce on neighbouring cells of the Central Nervous System (CNS), particularly in the long-term. This study focussed on the exposure of an in vitro BBB model to model carboxylated polystyrene nanoparticles (PS COOH NPs), as these nanoparticles are well characterised for in vitro experimentation and have been reported as non-toxic in many biological settings. TEM imaging showed accumulation but not degradation of 100 nm PS COOH NPs within the lysosomes of the in vitro BBB over time. Cytokine secretion analysis from the in vitro BBB post 24 h 100 nm PS COOH NP exposure showed a low level of pro-inflammatory RANTES protein secretion compared to control. In contrast, 24 h exposure of the in vitro BBB endothelium to 100 nm PS COOH NPs in the presence of underlying astrocytes caused a significant increase in pro-survival signalling. In conclusion, the tantalising possibilities of nanomedicine must be balanced by cautious studies into the possible long-term toxicity caused by accumulation of known 'toxic' and 'non-toxic' nanoparticles, as general toxicity assays may be disguising significant signalling regulation during long-term accumulation.
403Scopus© Citations 34
- PublicationImaging approach to mechanistic study of nanoparticle interactions with the blood-brain barrierUnderstanding nanoparticle interactions with the central nervous system, in particular the blood-brain barrier, is key to advances in therapeutics, as well as assessing the safety of nanoparticles. Challenges in achieving insights have been significant, even for relatively simple models. Here we use a combination of live cell imaging and computational analysis to directly study nanoparticle translocation across a human in vitro blood-brain barrier model. This approach allows us to identify and avoid problems in more conventional inferential in vitro measurements by identifying the catalogue of events of barrier internalization and translocation as they occur. Potentially this approach opens up the window of applicability of in vitro models, thereby enabling in depth mechanistic studies in the future. Model nanoparticles are used to illustrate the method. For those, we find that translocation, though rare, appears to take place. On the other hand, barrier uptake is efficient, and since barrier export is small, there is significant accumulation within the barrier. © 2014 American Chemical Society.
173Scopus© Citations 97
- PublicationNanoparticle accumulation and transcytosis in brain endothelial cell layersThe blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a selective barrier, which controls and limits access to the central nervous system (CNS). The selectivity of the BBB relies on specialized characteristics of the endothelial cells that line the microvasculature, including the expression of intercellular tight junctions, which limit paracellular permeability. Several reports suggest that nanoparticles have a unique capacity to cross the BBB. However, direct evidence of nanoparticle transcytosis is difficult to obtain, and we found that typical transport studies present several limitations when applied to nanoparticles. In order to investigate the capacity of nanoparticles to access and transport across the BBB, several different nanomaterials, including silica, titania and albumin- or transferrin-conjugated gold nanoparticles of different sizes, were exposed to a human in vitro BBB model of endothelial hCMEC/D3 cells. Extensive transmission electron microscopy imaging was applied in order to describe nanoparticle endocytosis and typical intracellular localisation, as well as to look for evidence of eventual transcytosis. Our results show that all of the nanoparticles were internalised, to different extents, by the BBB model and accumulated along the endo–lysosomal pathway. Rare events suggestive of nanoparticle transcytosis were also observed for several of the tested materials.
708Scopus© Citations 96