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- PublicationPhenotype-based Discovery of 2-[(E)-2-(Quinolin-2-yl)vinyl]phenol as a Novel Regulator of Ocular AngiogenesisRetinal angiogenesis is tightly regulated to meet oxygenation and nutritional requirements. In diseases such as proliferative diabetic retinopathy and neovascular age-related macular degeneration, uncontrolled angiogenesis can lead to blindness. Our goal is to better understand the molecular processes controlling retinal angiogenesis and discover novel drugs that inhibit retinal neovascularization. Phenotype-based chemical screens were performed using the ChemBridge DiversetTM library and inhibition of hyaloid vessel angiogenesis in Tg(fli1:EGFP) zebrafish. 2-[(E)-2-(Quinolin-2-yl)vinyl]phenol, (quininib) robustly inhibits developmental angiogenesis at 4–10 μm in zebrafish and significantly inhibits angiogenic tubule formation in HMEC-1 cells, angiogenic sprouting in aortic ring explants, and retinal revascularization in oxygen-induced retinopathy mice. Quininib is well tolerated in zebrafish, human cell lines, and murine eyes. Profiling screens of 153 angiogenic and inflammatory targets revealed that quininib does not directly target VEGF receptors but antagonizes cysteinyl leukotriene receptors 1 and 2 (CysLT1–2) at micromolar IC50 values. In summary, quininib is a novel anti-angiogenic small-molecule CysLT receptor antagonist. Quininib inhibits angiogenesis in a range of cell and tissue systems, revealing novel physiological roles for CysLT signaling. Quininib has potential as a novel therapeutic agent to treat ocular neovascular pathologies and may complement current anti-VEGF biological agents.
345Scopus© Citations 29
- PublicationA method for isolation of cone photoreceptors from adult zebrafish retinaeBackground: Cone photoreceptors are specialised sensory retinal neurons responsible for photopic vision, colour perception and visual acuity. Retinal degenerative diseases are a heterogeneous group of eye diseases in which the most severe vision loss typically arises from cone photoreceptor dysfunction or degeneration. Establishing a method to purify cone photoreceptors from retinal tissue can accelerate the identification of key molecular determinants that underlie cone photoreceptor development, survival and function. The work herein describes a new method to purify enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-labelled cone photoreceptors from adult retina of Tg(3.2gnat2:EGFP) zebrafish. Results: Methods for dissecting adult zebrafish retinae, cell dissociation, cell sorting, RNA isolation and RNA quality control were optimised. The dissociation protocol, carried out with ~30 retinae from adult zebrafish, yielded approximately 6 × 106 cells. Flow cytometry cell sorting subsequently distinguished 1 × 106 EGFP+ cells and 4 × 106 EGFP− cells. Electropherograms confirmed downstream isolation of high-quality RNA with RNA integrity number (RIN) >7.6 and RNA concentration >5.7 ng/µl obtained from both populations. Reverse Transcriptase-PCR confirmed that the EGFP-positive cell populations express known genetic markers of cone photoreceptors that were not expressed in the EGFP-negative cell population whereas a rod opsin amplicon was only detected in the EGFP-negative retinal cell population. Conclusions: This work describes a valuable adult zebrafish cone photoreceptor isolation methodology enabling future identification of cone photoreceptor-enriched genes, proteins and signalling networks responsible for their development, survival and function. In addition, this advancement facilitates the identification of novel candidate genes for inherited human blindness.
332Scopus© Citations 5
- PublicationDiscovery and Development of the Quininib Series of Ocular DrugsThe quininib series is a novel collection of small-molecule drugs with antiangiogenic, antivascular permeability, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative activity. Quininib was initially identified as a drug hit during a random chemical library screen for determinants of developmental ocular angiogenesis in zebrafish. To enhance drug efficacy, novel quininib analogs were designed by applying medicinal chemistry approaches. The resulting quininib drug series has efficacy in in vitro and ex vivo models of angiogenesis utilizing human cell lines and tissues. In vivo, quininib drugs reduce pathological angiogenesis and retinal vascular permeability in rodent models. Quininib acts as a cysteinyl leukotriene (CysLT) receptor antagonist, revealing new roles of these G-protein-coupled receptors in developmental angiogenesis of the eye and unexpectedly in uveal melanoma (UM). The quininib series highlighted the potential of CysLT receptors as therapeutic targets for retinal vasculopathies (e.g., neovascular age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and diabetic macular edema) and ocular cancers (e.g., UM).