Scholz, Carsten C.
Scholz, Carsten C.
Scholz, Carsten C.
Now showing 1 - 7 of 7
- PublicationREST is a hypoxia-responsive transcriptional repressor(Springer Nature, 2016-08-17)
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;Cellular exposure to hypoxia results in altered gene expression in a range of physiologic and pathophysiologic states. Discrete cohorts of genes can be either up- or down-regulated in response to hypoxia. While the Hypoxia-Inducible Factor (HIF) is the primary driver of hypoxia-induced adaptive gene expression, less is known about the signalling mechanisms regulating hypoxia-dependent gene repression. Using RNA-seq, we demonstrate that equivalent numbers of genes are induced and repressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. We demonstrate that nuclear localization of the Repressor Element 1-Silencing Transcription factor (REST) is induced in hypoxia and that REST is responsible for regulating approximately 20% of the hypoxia-repressed genes. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays we demonstrate that REST-dependent gene repression is at least in part mediated by direct binding to the promoters of target genes. Based on these data, we propose that REST is a key mediator of gene repression in hypoxia. 290Scopus© Citations 46
- PublicationFIH Regulates Cellular Metabolism through Hydroxylation of the Deubiquitinase OTUB1(Public Library of Science, 2016-01-11)
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;The asparagine hydroxylase, factor inhibiting HIF (FIH), confers oxygen-dependence upon the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), a master regulator of the cellular adaptive response to hypoxia. Studies investigating whether asparagine hydroxylation is a general regulatory oxygen-dependent modification have identified multiple non-HIF targets for FIH. However, the functional consequences of this outside of the HIF pathway remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the deubiquitinase ovarian tumor domain containing ubiquitin aldehyde binding protein 1 (OTUB1) is a substrate for hydroxylation by FIH on N22. Mutation of N22 leads to a profound change in the interaction of OTUB1 with proteins important in cellular metabolism. Furthermore, in cultured cells, overexpression of N22A mutant OTUB1 impairs cellular metabolic processes when compared to wild type. Based on these data, we hypothesize that OTUB1 is a target for functional hydroxylation by FIH. Additionally, we propose that our results provide new insight into the regulation of cellular energy metabolism during hypoxic stress and the potential for targeting hydroxylases for therapeutic benefit. 226Scopus© Citations 60
- PublicationRegulation of IL-1β-induced NF-κB by hydroxylases links key hypoxic and inflammatory signaling pathways(National Academy of Sciences, 2013-10)
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;Hypoxia is a prominent feature of chronically inflamed tissues. Oxygen-sensing hydroxylases control transcriptional adaptation to hypoxia through the regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), both of which can regulate the inflammatory response. Furthermore, pharmacologic hydroxylase inhibitors reduce inflammation in multiple animal models. However, the underlying mechanism(s) linking hydroxylase activity to inflammatory signaling remains unclear. IL-1β, a major proinflammatory cytokine that regulates NF-κB, is associated with multiple inflammatory pathologies. We demonstrate that a combination of prolyl hydroxylase 1 and factor inhibiting HIF hydroxylase isoforms regulates IL-1β-induced NF-κB at the level of (or downstream of) the tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 complex. Multiple proteins of the distal IL-1β-signaling pathway are subject to hydroxylation and form complexes with either prolyl hydroxylase 1 or factor inhibiting HIF. Thus, we hypothesize that hydroxylases regulate IL-1β signaling and subsequent inflammatory gene expression. Furthermore, hydroxylase inhibition represents a unique approach to the inhibition of IL-1β-dependent inflammatory signaling. 226Scopus© Citations 121
- PublicationHypercapnia Suppresses the HIF-dependent Adaptive Response to Hypoxia(American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2016-05-27)
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;Molecular oxygen and carbon dioxide are the primary gaseous substrate and product of oxidative metabolism, respectively. Hypoxia (low oxygen) and hypercapnia (high carbon dioxide) are co-incidental features of the tissue microenvironment in a range of pathophysiologic states, including acute and chronic respiratory diseases. The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is the master regulator of the transcriptional response to hypoxia; however, little is known about the impact of hypercapnia on gene transcription. Because of the relationship between hypoxia and hypercapnia, we investigated the effect of hypercapnia on the HIF pathway. Hypercapnia suppressed HIF-α protein stability and HIF target gene expression both in mice and cultured cells in a manner that was at least in part independent of the canonical O2-dependent HIF degradation pathway. The suppressive effects of hypercapnia on HIF-α protein stability could be mimicked by reducing intracellular pH at a constant level of partial pressure of CO2 Bafilomycin A1, a specific inhibitor of vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase that blocks lysosomal degradation, prevented the hypercapnic suppression of HIF-α protein. Based on these results, we hypothesize that hypercapnia counter-regulates activation of the HIF pathway by reducing intracellular pH and promoting lysosomal degradation of HIF-α subunits. Therefore, hypercapnia may play a key role in the pathophysiology of diseases where HIF is implicated. 39Scopus© Citations 39
- PublicationHydroxylase-dependent regulation of the NF-κB pathway(Walter de Gruyter GmbH, 2013-01-01)
;Hypoxia is associated with a diverse range of physiological and pathophysiological processes, including development, wound healing, inflammation, vascular disease and cancer. The requirement that eukaryotic cells have for molecular oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor for the electron transport chain means that the maintenance of oxygen delivery is key for bioenergetic homeostasis. Metazoans have evolved an effective way to adapt to hypoxic stress at the molecular level through a transcription factor termed the hypoxia inducible factor. A family of oxygen-sensing hydroxylases utilizes molecular oxygen as a co-substrate for the hydroxylation of hypoxia inducible factor α subunits, thereby reducing its expression and transcriptional activity when oxygen is available. Recent studies have indicated that other hypoxia-responsive transcriptional pathways may also be hydroxylase-dependent. In this review, we will discuss the role of hydroxylases in the regulation of NF-κB, a key regulator of immunity and inflammation. Developing our understanding of the role of hydroxylases in hypoxic inflammation may identify novel therapeutic approaches in chronic inflammatory disease. 424Scopus© Citations 34
- PublicationA dynamic model of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1α) network(The Company of Biologists, 2013-02-06)
; ; ;Activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway is a critical step in the transcriptional response to hypoxia. Although many of the key proteins involved have been characterised, the dynamics of their interactions in generating this response remain unclear. In the present study, we have generated a comprehensive mathematical model of the HIF-1α pathway based on core validated components and dynamic experimental data, and confirm the previously described connections within the predicted network topology. Our model confirms previous work demonstrating that the steps leading to optimal HIF-1α transcriptional activity require sequential inhibition of both prolyl- and asparaginyl-hydroxylases. We predict from our model (and confirm experimentally) that there is residual activity of the asparaginyl-hydroxylase FIH (factor inhibiting HIF) at low oxygen tension. Furthermore, silencing FIH under conditions where prolyl-hydroxylases are inhibited results in increased HIF-1α transcriptional activity, but paradoxically decreases HIF-1α stability. Using a core module of the HIF network and mathematical proof supported by experimental data, we propose that asparaginyl hydroxylation confers a degree of resistance upon HIF-1α to proteosomal degradation. Thus, through in vitro experimental data and in silico predictions, we provide a comprehensive model of the dynamic regulation of HIF-1α transcriptional activity by hydroxylases and use its predictive and adaptive properties to explain counter-intuitive biological observations. 321Scopus© Citations 86
- PublicationREST mediates resolution of HIF-dependent gene expression in prolonged hypoxia(Springer Nature, 2015-12-09)
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is a key regulator of the cellular response to hypoxia which promotes oxygen delivery and metabolic adaptation to oxygen deprivation. However, the degree and duration of HIF-1a expression in hypoxia must be carefully balanced within cells in order to avoid unwanted side effects associated with excessive activity. The expression of HIF-1a mRNA is suppressed in prolonged hypoxia, suggesting that the control of HIF1A gene transcription is tightly regulated by negative feedback mechanisms. Little is known about the resolution of the HIF-1a protein response and the suppression of HIF-1a mRNA in prolonged hypoxia. Here, we demonstrate that the Repressor Element 1-Silencing Transcription factor (REST) binds to the HIF-1a promoter in a hypoxia-dependent manner. Knockdown of REST using RNAi increases the expression of HIF-1a mRNA, protein and transcriptional activity. Furthermore REST knockdown increases glucose consumption and lactate production in a HIF-1a- (but not HIF-2a-) dependent manner. Finally, REST promotes the resolution of HIF-1a protein expression in prolonged hypoxia. In conclusion, we hypothesize that REST represses transcription of HIF-1a in prolonged hypoxia, thus contributing to the resolution of the HIF-1a response. 234Scopus© Citations 49