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    Grammar-based genetic programming : a survey
    Grammar formalisms are one of the key representation structures in Computer Science. So it is not surprising that they have also become important as a method for formalizing constraints in Genetic Programming (GP). Practical grammar-based GP systems first appeared in the mid 1990s, and have subsequently become an important strand in GP research and applications. We trace their subsequent rise, surveying the various grammar-based formalisms that have been used in GP and discussing the contributions they have made to the progress of GP. We illustrate these contributions with a range of applications of grammar-based GP, showing how grammar formalisms contributed to the solutions of these problems. We briefly discuss the likely future development of grammar-based GP systems, and conclude with a brief summary of the field.
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