Now showing 1 - 10 of 14
  • Publication
    Assessing Power System Flexibility for Variable Renewable Integration: A Flexibility Metric for Long-Term System Planning
    Many countries around the world have instituted policies with the aim of increasing the amount of installed variable generation (VG), such as wind and solar. A consequence of increased penetrations of VG is that changes in their output must be met by the remainder of a system’s resources so that the demand-generation balance is maintained. This paper proposes a highlevel methodology to assess power system flexibility. In this context, flexibility is the ability of a power system to deploy its resources to meet changes in the system demand and that of variable generation. The inclusion of such analysis at the long-term system planning stage will help to ensure that systems are optimally planned and operated with high levels of VG. Two case studies are presented which illustrate the flexibility assessment methodology and highlight some key issues relating to flexibility in the context of long-term planning.
  • Publication
    Pumped storage in systems with very high wind penetration
    (Elsevier, 2011-04) ;
    This paper examines the operation of the Irish power system with very high levels of wind energy, with and without pumped storage. A unit commitment model which accounts for the uncertainty in wind power is used. It is shown that as wind penetration increases, the optimal operation of storage depends on wind output as well as load. The main benefit from storage is shown to be a decrease in wind curtailment. The economics of the system are examined to find the level at which storage justifies its capital costs and inefficiencies. It is shown that the uncertainty of wind makes the option of storage more attractive. The size of the energy store has an impact on results. At lower levels of installed wind (up to approximately 50% of energy from wind in Ireland), the reduction in curtailment is insufficient to justify building storage. At greater levels of wind, storage reduces curtailment sufficiently to justify the additional capital costs. It can be seen that if storage replaces OCGTs in the plant mix instead of CCGTs, then the level at which it justifies itself is lower. Storage increases the level of carbon emissions at wind penetration below 60%.
      545Scopus© Citations 156
  • Publication
    Unit Commitment Considering Regional Synchronous Reactive Power Requirements : Costs and Effects
    Highly renewable power systems may have to impose regional minima on the number of online synchronous units to ensure appropriate availability of controllable reactive power. Given the declining net loads associated with increasing wind penetration levels, these regional constraints are anticipated to come into effect with greater frequency. Such constraints have a tangible effect on the total cost of unit commitment schedules, with out-of-merit units being committed solely to preserve secure voltage regimes. The use of novel reactive power resources may make regional constraints less necessary, and the voltage-control capabilities of distribution-connected wind farms will be examined in this role. Harnessing these resources may not require any roll-out of new technology, but would be an operational change to utilise the pre-existing voltage-control capabilities implicit in the power electronic topology of modern wind turbine generators. Given the capital costs of new dedicated VAr sources, and the generating costs associated with using synchronous plant for voltage control, it appears vital to derive the greatest possible value from existing assets.
  • Publication
    Managing wind uncertainty and variability in the Irish power system
    This paper summarizes work that has been done to examine the impact of the uncertainty and variability of significant installed wind power on the Irish system. As more and more wind power is installed on the system, the operation of conventional plant on the system will be dramatically different. In this paper, three different aspects of the hour-to-hour operation of the Irish power system are examined. An innovative method to schedule the system is described, together with key results giving the effect of the uncertainty of wind on unit commitment of the system. The increased cycling of traditionally base-load units due to large amounts of wind power is quantified, and the steps to reduce this unwanted behavior are outlined. Finally, the use of intelligent decision tools based on sophisticated wind power forecasts for scheduling and provision of reserve is described.
      432Scopus© Citations 3
  • Publication
    Burning peat in Ireland : an electricity market dispatch perspective
    This paper examines peat power production in Ireland under the three pillars of energy policy—security, competitiveness and environment. Peat contributes to energy security—as an indigenous fuel, it reduces dependency on imports. During a period of low capacity margins, the operation of the peat plants is useful from a system security perspective. Peat generation is being financially supported by consumers through an electricity levy. The fuel also has high carbon intensity. It is not politically viable to consider peat on equal economic criteria to other plant types because of history and location. This paper reviews electricity generation through combustion of peat in Ireland, and quantifies the costs of supporting peat utilising economic dispatch tools, finding the subsidy is not insignificant from a cost or carbon perspective. It shows that while peat is beneficial for one pillar of energy policy (security), the current usage of peat is not optimal from a competitiveness or environmental perspective. By switching from the current ‘must-run’ mode of operation for peat to the ‘dispatched’ mode used for the other generation, significant societal savings (in the range €21m per annum) can be achieved, as well as reducing system emissions by approximately 5% per year.
      5911Scopus© Citations 26
  • Publication
    Impact of pumped storage on power systems with increasing wind penetration
    In this paper, the unit commitment and dispatch of a power system with and without a pumped storage unit is examined for increasing levels of installed wind power, from 17% of total energy to 80% of total energy generated by wind 3 (3GW to 15GW of installed wind on the Irish system in 2020). At high levels of installed wind, it is shown that storage reduces curtailment and increases the use the base loaded plant on the system. This reduces system costs. However, when the additional capital costs of storage are taken into account, it is shown that storage is not viable from a system perspective until extremely large levels of wind power are seen on the system. At these levels of installed wind, while the system can operate without storage, it is less costly to do so with storage. The capacity credit of the storage unit is also examined, using a simplified approach, and shown to decrease as larger amounts of intermittent wind power are added to the system.
      1931Scopus© Citations 88
  • Publication
    Integration of variable generation : capacity value and evaluation of flexibility
    As integration of variable generation continues to grow rapidly in power systems globally, system planners are seeking new tools to understand the role of variable output generators and the challenges experienced with their integration. The North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) has established a task force to examine the integration of variable generation. This paper details the achievements to date and outlines ongoing efforts from Task 1.2 on the capacity value of variable generation and from Task 1.4 on the concept of flexibility in power systems and options for its definition. Arising from international collaboration with the International Energy Agency, a discussion on the definition of flexible resources is presented. A potential metric for flexibility offered by conventional plant is developed and applied to a test system.
      1192Scopus© Citations 43
  • Publication
    Unit commitment for systems with significant wind penetration
    The stochastic nature of wind alters the unit commitment and dispatch problem. By accounting for this uncertainty when scheduling the system, more robust schedules are produced, which should, on average, reduce expected costs. In this paper, the effects of stochastic wind and load on the unit commitment and dispatch of power systems with high levels of wind power are examined. By comparing the costs, planned operation and performance of the schedules produced, it is shown that stochastic optimization results in less costly, of the order of 0.25%, and better performing schedules than deterministic optimization. The impact of planning the system more frequently to account for updated wind and load forecasts is then examined. More frequent planning means more up to date forecasts are used, which reduces the need for reserve and increases performance of the schedules. It is shown that mid-merit and peaking units and the interconnection are the most affected parts of the system where uncertainty of wind is concerned.
      3126Scopus© Citations 573
  • Publication
    Demand side resource operation on the Irish power system with high wind power penetration
    The utilisation of demand side resources is set to increase over the coming years with the advent of advanced metering infrastructure, home area networks and the promotion of increased energy efficiency. Demand side resources are proposed as an energy resource that, through aggregation, can form part of the power system plant mix and contribute to the flexible operation of a power system. A model for demand side resources is proposed here that captures its key characteristics for commitment and dispatch calculations. The model is tested on the all island Irish power system, and the operation of the model is simulated over one year in both a stochastic and deterministic mode, to illustrate the impact of wind and load uncertainty. The results illustrate that demand side resources can contribute to the efficient, flexible operation of systems with high penetrations of wind by replacing some of the functions of conventional peaking plant. Demand side resources are also shown to be capable of improving the reliability of the system, with reserve capability identified as a key requirement in this respect.
      867Scopus© Citations 66