Now showing 1 - 6 of 6
  • Publication
    Increased extracellular vesicles mediate inflammatory signalling in cystic fibrosis
    Rationale Mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene form the basis of cystic fibrosis (CF). There remains an important knowledge gap in CF as to how diminished CFTR activity leads to the dominant inflammatory response within CF airways. Objectives To investigate if extracellular vesicles (EVs) contribute to inflammatory signalling in CF. Methods EVs released from CFBE41o-, CuFi-5, 16HBE14o- and NuLi-1 cells were characterised by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). EVs isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from 30 people with CF (PWCF) were analysed by NTA and mass spectrometry and compared with controls. Neutrophils were isolated from the blood of 8 PWCF to examine neutrophil migration in the presence of CFBE41o- EVs. Results A significantly higher level of EVs were released from CFBE41o- (p<0.0001) and CuFi-5 (p=0.0209) relative to control cell lines. A significantly higher level of EVs were detected in BALF of PWCF, in three different age groups relative to controls (p=0.01, 0.001, 0.002). A significantly lower level of EVs were released from CFBE41o- (p<0.001) and CuFi-5 (p=0.0002) cell lines treated with CFTR modulators. Significant changes in the protein expression of 126 unique proteins was determined in EVs obtained from the BALF of PWCF of different age groups (p<0.001-0.05). A significant increase in chemotaxis of neutrophils derived from PWCF was observed in the presence of CFBE41o EVs (p=0.0024) compared with controls. Conclusion This study demonstrates that EVs are produced in CF airway cells, have differential protein expression at different ages and drive neutrophil recruitment in CF.
      18Scopus© Citations 17
  • Publication
    Shear Stress Markedly Alters the Proteomic Response to Hypoxia in Human Pulmonary Endothelial Cells
    Blood flow produces shear stress that homeostatically regulates the phenotype of pulmonary endothelial cells, exerting antiinflammatory and antithrombotic actions and maintaining normal barrier function. Hypoxia due to diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), causes vasoconstriction, increased vascular resistance, and pulmonary hypertension. Hypoxia-induced changes in endothelial function play a central role in the development of pulmonary hypertension. However, the interactive effects of hypoxia and shear stress on the pulmonary endothelial phenotype have not been studied. Human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells were cultured in normoxia or hypoxia while subjected to physiological shear stress or in static conditions. Unbiased proteomics was used to identify hypoxia-induced changes in protein expression. Using publicly available single-cell RNA sequencing datasets, differences in gene expression between the alveolar endothelial cells from COPD and healthy lungs were identified. Sixty proteins were identified whose expression changed in response to hypoxia in conditions of physiological shear stress but not in static conditions. These included proteins that are crucial for endothelial homeostasis (e.g., JAM-A [junctional adhesion molecule A], ERG [ETS transcription factor ERG]) or implicated in pulmonary hypertension (e.g., thrombospondin-1). Fifty-five of these 60 have not been previously implicated in the development of hypoxic lung diseases. mRNA for 5 of the 60 (ERG, MCRIP1 [MAPK regulated corepressor interacting protein 1], EIF4A2 [eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A2], HSP90AA1 [heat shock protein 90 alpha family class A member 1], and DNAJA1 [DnaJ Hsp40 (heat shock protein family) member A1]) showed similar changes in the alveolar endothelial cells of COPD compared with healthy lungs in females but not in males. These data show that the proteomic responses of the pulmonary microvascular endothelium to hypoxia are significantly altered by shear stress and suggest that these shear-hypoxia interactions are important in the development of hypoxic pulmonary vascular disease.
      42Scopus© Citations 5
  • Publication
    Dawn and dusk peaks of outer segment phagocytosis, and visual cycle function require Rab28
    RAB28 is a farnesylated, ciliary G-protein. Patient variants in RAB28 are causative of autosomal recessive cone-rod dystrophy (CRD), an inherited human blindness. In rodent and zebrafish models, the absence of Rab28 results in diminished dawn, photoreceptor, outer segment phagocytosis (OSP). Here, we demonstrate that Rab28 is also required for dusk peaks of OSP, but not for basal OSP levels. This study further elucidated the molecular mechanisms by which Rab28 controls OSP and inherited blindness. Proteomic profiling identified factors whose expression in the eye or whose expression at dawn and dusk peaks of OSP is dysregulated by loss of Rab28. Notably, transgenic overexpression of Rab28, solely in zebrafish cones, rescues the OSP defect in rab28 KO fish, suggesting rab28 gene replacement in cone photoreceptors is sufficient to regulate Rab28-OSP. Rab28 loss also perturbs function of the visual cycle as retinoid levels of 11-cRAL, 11cRP, and atRP are significantly reduced in larval and adult rab28 KO retinae (p <.05). These data give further understanding on the molecular mechanisms of RAB28-associated CRD, highlighting roles of Rab28 in both peaks of OSP, in vitamin A metabolism and in retinoid recycling.
      150Scopus© Citations 4
  • Publication
    Peptigram: a web-based application for peptidomics data visualization
    Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) techniques, developed for protein identification, are increasingly being applied in the field of peptidomics. Using this approach, the set of protein fragments observed in a sample of interest can be determined to gain insights into important biological processes such as signaling and other bioactivities. As the peptidomics era progresses, there is a need for robust and convenient methods to inspect and analyze MS/MS derived data. Here, we present Peptigram, a novel tool dedicated to the visualization and comparison of peptides detected by MS/MS. The principal advantage of Peptigram is that it provides visualizations at both the protein and peptide level, allowing users to simultaneously visualize the peptide distributions of one or more samples of interest, mapped to their parent proteins. In this way rapid comparisons between samples can be made in terms of their peptide coverage and abundance. Moreover, Peptigram integrates and displays key sequence features from external databases and links with peptide analysis tools to offer the user a comprehensive peptide discovery resource. Here, we illustrate the use of Peptigram on a data set of milk hydrolysates. For convenience, Peptigram is implemented as a web application, and is freely available for academic use at http://bioware.ucd.ie/peptigram.
      857Scopus© Citations 65
  • Publication
    Transcriptomics and proteomics revealed sex differences in human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells
    Marked sexual dimorphism is displayed in the onset and progression of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Females more commonly develop pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), yet females with PAH and other types of PH have better survival than males. Pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells play a crucial role in the pulmonary vascular remodelling and increased pulmonary vascular resistance in PH. Given this background, we hypothesized that there are sex differences in the pulmonary microvascular endothelium basally and in response to hypoxia that are independent of the sex hormone environment. Human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMECs) from healthy male and female donors, cultured under physiological shear stress, were analysed using RNA sequencing and label-free quantitative proteomics. Gene set enrichment analysis identified a number of sex different pathways both in normoxia and hypoxia, including pathways that regulate cell proliferation. In vitro, rate of proliferation in female HPMECs was lower than in male HPMECs, a finding that supports the omics results. Interestingly, thrombospondin1, an inhibitor of proliferation, was more highly expressed in female than in male cells. These results demonstrate for the first time important differences between female and male HPMECs that persist in the absence of sex hormone differences and identify novel pathways for further investigation that may contribute to sexual dimorphism in pulmonary hypertensive diseases.
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  • Publication
    A brain-derived neurotrophic factor mimetic is sufficient to restore cone photoreceptor visual function in an inherited blindness model
    Controversially, histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are in clinical trial for the treatment of inherited retinal degeneration. Utilizing the zebrafish dyeucd6 model, we determined if treatment with HDACi can rescue cone photoreceptor-mediated visual function. dye exhibit defective visual behaviour and retinal morphology including ciliary marginal zone (CMZ) cell death and decreased photoreceptor outer segment (OS) length, as well as gross morphological defects including hypopigmentation and pericardial oedema. HDACi treatment of dye results in significantly improved optokinetic (OKR) (~43 fold, p < 0.001) and visualmotor (VMR) (~3 fold, p < 0.05) responses. HDACi treatment rescued gross morphological defects and reduced CMZ cell death by 80%. Proteomic analysis of dye eye extracts suggested BDNF-TrkB and Akt signaling as mediators of HDACi rescue inour dataset. Cotreatment with the TrkB antagonist ANA-12 blocked HDACi rescue of visual function and associated Akt phosphorylation. Notably, sole treatment with a BDNF mimetic, 7,8-dihydroxyflavone hydrate, significantly rescued dye visual function (~58 fold increase in OKR, p < 0.001, ~3 fold increase in VMR, p < 0.05). In summary, HDACi and a BDNF mimetic are sufficient to rescue retinal cell death and visual function in a vertebrate model of inherited blindness.
      646Scopus© Citations 28