- Destrade, Michel

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# Destrade, Michel

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677 - PublicationCharacterization of the anisotropic mechanical properties of excised human skin(Elsevier, 2012-01)
; ; ; ; The mechanical properties of skin are important for a number of applications including surgery, dermatology, impact biomechanics and forensic science. In this study, we have investigated the influence of location and orientation on the deformation characteristics of 56 samples of excised human skin. Uniaxial tensile tests were carried out at a strain rate of 0.012 sâˆ’1 on skin from the back. Digital Image Correlation was used for 2D strain measurement and a histological examination of the dermis was also performed. The mean ultimate tensile strength (UTS) was 21.6Â±8.4 MPa, the mean failure strain 54%Â±17%, the mean initial slope 1.18Â±0.88 MPa, the mean elastic modulus 83.3Â±34.9 MPa and the mean strain energy was 3.6Â±1.6 MJ/m3. A multivariate analysis of variance has shown that these mechanical properties of skin are dependent upon the orientation of the Langer lines (P<0.0001âˆ’P=0.046). The location of specimens on the back was also found to have a significant effect on the UTS (P=0.0002), the elastic modulus (P=0.001) and the strain energy (P=0.0052). The histological investigation concluded that there is a definite correlation between the orientation of the Langer lines and the preferred orientation of collagen fibres in the dermis (P<0.001). The data obtained in this study will provide essential information for those wishing to model the skin using a structural constitutive model.328ScopusÂ© Citations 441 - PublicationAutomated Estimation of Collagen Fibre Dispersion in the Dermis and its Contribution to the Anisotropic Behaviour of SkinCollagen fibres play an important role in the mechanical behaviour of many soft tissues. Modelling of such tissues now often incorporates a collagen fibre distribution. However, the availability of accurate structural data has so far lagged behind the progress of anisotropic constitutive modelling. Here, an automated process is developed to identify the orientation of collagen fibres using inexpensive and relatively simple techniques. The method uses established histological techniques and an algorithm implemented in the MATLAB image processing toolbox. It takes an average of 15 s to evaluate one image, compared to several hours if assessed visually. The technique was applied to histological sections of human skin with different Langer line orientations and a definite correlation between the orientation of Langer lines and the preferred orientation of collagen fibres in the dermis (p<0.001,R 2 =0.95) was observed. The structural parameters of the Gasserâ€“Ogdenâ€“Holzapfel (GOH) model were all successfully evaluated. The mean dispersion factor for the dermis was Îº=0.1404Â±0.0028. The constitutive parameters Î¼, k 1 and k 2 were evaluated through physically-based, least squares curve-fitting of experimental test data. The values found for Î¼, k 1 and k 2 were 0.2014 MPa, 243.6 and 0.1327, respectively. Finally, the above model was implemented in ABAQUS/Standard and a finite element (FE) computation was performed of uniaxial extension tests on human skin. It is expected that the results of this study will assist those wishing to model skin, and that the algorithm described will be of benefit to those who wish to evaluate the collagen dispersion of other soft tissues.
597ScopusÂ© Citations 135 - PublicationNon-invasive evaluation of skin tension lines with elastic waves(Wiley, 2016-11-20)
; ; ; ; Background: Since their discovery by Karl Langer in the 19th Century, Skin Tension Lines (STLs) have been used by surgeons to decide the location and orientation of an incision. Although these lines are patient-specific, most surgeons rely on generic maps to determine their orientation. Beyond the imprecise pinch test, there still exists no accepted method for determining the STLs in vivo. Methods: (i) The speed of an elastic motion travelling radially on the skin of canine cadavers was measured with a commercial device called the Reviscometer R . (ii) Similar to the original experiments conducted by Karl Langer, circular excisions were made on the skin and the subsequent geometric changes to the resulting wounds and excised samples were used to determine the orientation of STLs. Results A marked anisotropy in the speed in the elastic wave travelling radially was observed. The orientation of the fastest wave was found to correlate with the orientation of the elongated wound (P < 0.001, R2 = 74%). Similarly, the orientation of fastest wave was the same for both in vivo and excised isolated samples, indicating that the STLs have a structural basis. Resulting wounds expanded by an average area of 9% (+16% along STL and âˆ’10% across) while excised skin shrunk by an average of 33% (23% along STL and 10% across). Conclusion: Elastic surface wave propagation has been validated experimentally as a robust method for determining the orientation of STLs nondestructively and non-invasively. This study has implications for the identification of STLs and for the prediction of skin tension levels, both important factors in reconstructive surgeries for both medicine and veterinary medicine.451ScopusÂ© Citations 16 - PublicationTowards a predictive assessment of stab-penetration forces(Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, 2015-09)
; ; ; ; Collaborative research between the disciplines of forensic pathology and biomechanics was undertaken to investigate the hyperelastic properties of human skin, to determine the force required for sharp instrument penetration of skin, and to develop a finite element model, which reflects the mechanisms of sharp instrument penetration. These studies have led to the development of a 'stab metric', based on simulations, to describe the force magnitudes in stabbing incidents. Such a metric should, in time, replace the crudely quantitative descriptors of stabbing forces currently used by forensic pathologists.336ScopusÂ© Citations 8 - PublicationBending instabilities of soft biological tissuesRubber components and soft biological tissues are often subjected to large bending deformations while 'in service'. The circumferential line elements on the inner face of a bent block can contract up to a certain critical stretch ratio Î»cr (say) before bifurcation occurs and axial creases appear. For several models used to describe rubber, it is found that Î»cr=0.56, allowing for a 44% contraction. For models used to describe arteries it is found, somewhat surprisingly, that the strain-stiffening effect promotes instability. For example, the models used for the artery of a seventy-year old human predict that Î»cr=0.73, allowing only for a 27% contraction. Tensile experiments conducted on pig skin indicate that bending instabilities should occur even earlier there.
262ScopusÂ© Citations 74 - PublicationAutomated Estimation of Collagen Fibre Dispersion in the Dermis and its Contribution to the Anisotropic Behaviour of Skin(Springer, 2012-08)
; ; ; ; Collagen fibres play an important role in the mechanical behaviour of many soft tissues. Modelling of such tissues now often incorporates a collagen fibre distribution. However, the availability of accurate structural data has so far lagged behind the progress of anisotropic constitutive modelling. Here, an automated process is developed to identify the orientation of collagen fibres using inexpensive and relatively simple techniques. The method uses established histological techniques and an algorithm implemented in the MATLAB image processing toolbox. It takes an average of 15 s to evaluate one image, compared to several hours if assessed visually. The technique was applied to histological sections of human skin with different Langer line orientations and a definite correlation between the orientation of Langer lines and the preferred orientation of collagen fibres in the dermis (p<0.001,R2=0.95) was observed. The structural parameters of the Gasserâ€“Ogdenâ€“Holzapfel (GOH) model were all successfully evaluated. The mean dispersion factor for the dermis was Îº=0.1404Â±0.0028. The constitutive parameters Î¼, k 1 and k 2 were evaluated through physically-based, least squares curve-fitting of experimental test data. The values found for Î¼, k 1 and k 2 were 0.2014 MPa, 243.6 and 0.1327, respectively. Finally, the above model was implemented in ABAQUS/Standard and a finite element (FE) computation was performed of uniaxial extension tests on human skin. It is expected that the results of this study will assist those wishing to model skin, and that the algorithm described will be of benefit to those who wish to evaluate the collagen dispersion of other soft tissues.299ScopusÂ© Citations 135 - PublicationDeficiencies in numerical models of anisotropic nonlinearly elastic materialsIncompressible nonlinearly hyperelastic materials are rarely simulated in finite element numerical experiments as being perfectly incompressible because of the numerical difficulties associated with globally satisfying this constraint. Most commercial finite element packages therefore assume that the material is slightly compressible. It is then further assumed that the corresponding strain-energy function can be decomposed additively into volumetric and deviatoric parts. We show that this decomposition is not physically realistic, especially for anisotropic materials, which are of particular interest for simulating the mechanical response of biological soft tissue. The most striking illustration of the shortcoming is that with this decomposition, an anisotropic cube under hydrostatic tension deforms into another cube instead of a hexahedron with non-parallel faces. Furthermore, commercial numerical codes require the specification of a 'compressibility parameter' (or 'penalty factor'), which arises naturally from the flawed additive decomposition of the strain-energy function. This parameter is often linked to a 'bulk modulus', although this notion makes no sense for anisotropic solids; we show that it is essentially an arbitrary parameter and that infinitesimal changes to it result in significant changes in the predicted stress response. This is illustrated with numerical simulations for biaxial tension experiments of arteries, where the magnitude of the stress response is found to change by several orders of magnitude when infinitesimal changes in 'Poissonâ€™s ratio' close to the perfect incompressibility limit of 1/2 are made.
538ScopusÂ© Citations 34