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  • Publication
    Developing building archetypes for electrical load shifting assessment: Analysis of Irish residential stock
    Appropriate use of demand side management (DSM) strategies in residential buildings, when placed in a smart grid environment, can help reduce power supplydemand mismatches by shifting electrical loads, thus leading to better integration of renewable energy sources, particularly wind and solar generation. In the current paper, detailed building energy simulation models of residential stock are developed, using an occupant focused approach. Five archetypes are considered over three construction periods, representative of about 82% of the Irish building stock. The archetype models were found to be accurate to within 10% of the Irish standards, as exemplified using the Dwelling Energy Assessment Procedure (DEAP), for space and water heating energy requirements. The proposed approach was found to be more accurate than DEAP to estimate the electricity consumption. By integrating high resolution models for occupancy and electrical equipment use, it can generate more accurate models of the housing stock and expands previous investigations to include occupant behaviour, electrical load shifting and thermal comfort issues.