Now showing 1 - 10 of 13
  • Publication
    Can the Wikipedia moderation model rescue the social marketplace of ideas?
    Facebook announced a community review program in December 2019 and Twitter launched a communitybased platform to address misinformation, called Birdwatch, in January 2021. We provide an overview of the potential affordances of such community based approaches to content moderation based on past research. While our analysis generally supports a community-based approach to content moderation, it also warns against potential pitfalls, particularly when the implementation of the new infrastructures does not promote diversity. We call for more multidisciplinary research utilizing methods from complex systems studies, behavioural sociology, and computational social science to advance the research on crowd-based content moderation.
      129
  • Publication
    The Kaleidoscope of Privacy: Differences across French, German, UK, and US GDPR Media Discourse
    Conceptions of privacy differ by culture. In the Internet age, digital tools continuously challenge the way users, technologists, and governments define, value, and protect privacy. National and supranational entities attempt to regulate privacy and protect data managed online. The European Union passed the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which took effect on 25 May 2018. The research presented here draws on two years of media reporting on GDPR from French, German, UK, and US sources. We use the unsupervised machine learning method of topic modelling to compare the thematic structure of the news articles across time and geographic regions. Our work emphasises the relevance of regional differences regarding valuations of privacy and potential obstacles to the implementation of unilateral data protection regulation such as GDPR. We find that the topics and trends over time in GDPR media coverage of the four countries reflect the differences found across their traditional privacy cultures.
      75
  • Publication
    Fooling with Facts: Quantifying Anchoring Bias through a Large-scale Online Experiment
    Living in the ‘Information Age’ means that not only access to information has become easier but also that the distribution of information is more dynamic than ever. Through a large-scale online field experiment, we provide new empirical evidence for the presence of the anchoring bias in people’s judgment due to irrational reliance on a piece of information that they are initially given. The comparison of the anchoring stimuli and respective responses across different tasks reveals a positive, yet complex relationship between the anchors and the bias in participants’ predictions of the outcomes of events in the future. Participants in the treatment group were equally susceptible to the anchors regardless of their level of engagement, previous performance, or gender. Given the strong and ubiquitous influence of anchors quantified here, we should take great care to closely monitor and regulate the distribution of information online to facilitate less biased decision making. Heuristics are mental
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  • Publication
    What drives passion? An empirical examination on the impact of personality trait interactions and job environments on work passion
    Passionate employees are essential for organisational success as they foster higher performance and exhibit lower turnover or absenteeism. While a large body of research has investigated the consequences of passion, we know only little about its antecedents. Integrating trait interaction theory with trait activation theory, this paper examines how personality traits, i.e. conscientiousness, agreeableness, and neuroticism impact passion at work across different job situations. Passion has been conceptualized as a two-dimensional construct, consisting of harmonious work passion (HWP) and obsessive work passion (OWP). Our study is based on a sample of N = 824 participants from the myPersonality project. We find a positive relationship between neuroticism and OWP in enterprising environments. Further, we find a three-way interaction between conscientiousness, agreeableness, and enterprising environment in predicting OWP. Our findings imply that the impact of personality configurations on different forms of passion is contingent on the job environment. Moreover, in line with self-regulation theory, the results reveal agreeableness as a "cool influencer" and neuroticism as a "hot influencer" of the relationship between conscientiousness and work passion. We derive practical implications for organisations on how to foster work passion, particularly HWP, in organisations.
      61
  • Publication
    Football is becoming more predictable; network analysis of 88 thousand matches in 11 major leagues
    (The Royal Society, 2021-12-15) ;
    In recent years, excessive monetization of football and professionalism among the players have been argued to have affected the quality of the match in different ways. On the one hand, playing football has become a high-income profession and the players are highly motivated; on the other hand, stronger teams have higher incomes and therefore afford better players leading to an even stronger appearance in tournaments that can make the game more imbalanced and hence predictable. To quantify and document this observation, in this work, we take a minimalist network science approach to measure the predictability of football over 26 years in major European leagues. We show that over time, the games in major leagues have indeed become more predictable. We provide further support for this observation by showing that inequality between teams has increased and the home-field advantage has been vanishing ubiquitously. We do not include any direct analysis on the effects of monetization on football’s predictability or therefore, lack of excitement; however, we propose several hypotheses which could be tested in future analyses.
      71
  • Publication
    Selling sex: what determines rates and popularity? An analysis of 11,500 online profiles
    (Taylor & Francis, 2021-04-22) ;
    Sex work, or the exchange of sexual services for money or goods, is ubiquitous across eras and cultures. However, the practice of selling sex is often hidden due to stigma and the varying legal status of sex work. Online platforms that sex workers use to advertise services have become an increasingly important means of studying a market that is largely hidden. Although prior literature has primarily shed light on sex work from a public health or policy perspective (focusing largely on female sex workers), there are few studies that empirically research patterns of service provision in online sex work. This study investigated the determinants of pricing and popularity in the market for commercial sexual services online by using data from the largest UK network of online sexual services, a platform that is the industry-standard for sex workers. While the size of these influences varies across genders, nationality, age and the services provided are shown to be primary drivers of rates and popularity in sex work.
      115Scopus© Citations 3
  • Publication
    Gender Imbalance and Spatiotemporal Patterns of Contributions to Citizen Science Projects: The Case of Zooniverse
    Citizen Science is research undertaken by professional scientists and members of the public collaboratively. Despite numerous benefits of citizen science for both the advancement of science and the community of the citizen scientists, there is still no comprehensive knowledge of patterns of contributions, and the demography of contributors to citizen science projects. In this paper we provide a first overview of spatiotemporal and gender distribution of citizen science workforce by analyzing 54 million classifications contributed by more than 340 thousand citizen science volunteers from 198 countries to one of the largest online citizen science platforms, Zooniverse. First we report on the uneven geographical distribution of the citizen scientist and model the variations among countries based on the socio-economic conditions as well as the level of research investment in each country. Analyzing the temporal features of contributions, we report on high “burstiness” of participation instances as well as the leisurely nature of participation suggested by the time of the day that the citizen scientists were the most active. Finally, we discuss the gender imbalance among online citizen scientists (about 30% female) and compare it with other collaborative projects as well as the gender distribution in more formal scientific activities. Online citizen science projects need further attention from outside of the academic community, and our findings can help attract the attention of public and private stakeholders, as well as to inform the design of the platforms and science policy making processes.
      50Scopus© Citations 5
  • Publication
    Social complex contagion in music listenership: A natural experiment with 1.3 million participants
    (Elsevier, 2020-05) ;
    Can live music events generate complex contagion in music streaming? This paper finds evidence in the affirmative—but only for the most popular artists. We generate a novel dataset from a music tracking website to analyse the listenership history of 1.3 million users over a two-month time horizon. We show that attending a music artist's live concert increases that artist's listenership among the attendees of the concert by approximately 1 song per day per attendee (p-value < 0.001). Moreover, this effect is contagious and can spread to users who did not attend the event. However, whether or not contagion occurs depends on the type of artist. We only observe contagious increases in listenership for popular artists (∼0.06 more daily plays per friend of an attendee [p < 0.001]), while the effect is absent for emerging stars. The contagion effect size increases monotonically with the number of friends who have attended the live event.
      72Scopus© Citations 7
  • Publication
    Emergence of world-stock-market network
    Forty stock market indices of the world with the highest GDP has been studied. We show each market is a part of a global structure, that we call “world-stock-market network”. Where the correlation between two markets is not independent of the correlation between two other markets. Towards this end, we analyze the cross-correlation matrix of the indices of these forty markets using Random Matrix Theory (RMT). We find the degree of collective behavior among the markets and the share of each market in the world global network. This finding together with the results obtained from the same calculation on four stock markets reinforces the idea of a world financial market. Finally, we draw the dendrogram of the cross-correlation matrix to make communities in this abstract global market visible. The results show that the world financial market comprises three communities each of which includes stock markets with geographical proximity.
      28Scopus© Citations 11
  • Publication
    Positive algorithmic bias cannot stop fragmentation in homophilic networks
    (Taylor & Francis, 2020-09-13) ;
    Fragmentation, echo chambers, and their amelioration in social networks have been a growing concern in the academic and non-academic world. This paper shows how, under the assumption of homophily, echo chambers and fragmentation are system-immanent phenomena of highly flexible social networks, even under ideal conditions for heterogeneity. We achieve this by finding an analytical, network-based solution to the Schelling model and by proving that weak ties do not hinder the process. Furthermore, we derive that no level of positive algorithmic bias in the form of rewiring is capable of preventing fragmentation and its effect on reducing the fragmentation speed is negligible.
      65Scopus© Citations 4