Now showing 1 - 10 of 19
- PublicationThe Role of Blockchain to Fight Against COVID-19IEEE The COVID-19 pandemic has adversely affected almost all aspects of human life, various sectors of business, and regions of the world. The flow of human activities halted for several months, and are now being carefully redefined to align with guidelines and recommendations to avoid the spread of the novel coronavirus. In contrast to other pandemics the world has witnessed in the past, the technological advancements of the current era are a boon that can play a key role in safeguarding humanity. In this work, we begin by highlighting general challenges that have arisen during the COVID-19 pandemic. Next, to gauge the applicability of blockchain as a key enabling technology, we identify potential use cases to meet current needs. Further, for each use case, we present a high-level view of how blockchain can be leveraged and discuss the expected performance. Finally, we highlight the challenges that must be addressed to harness the full potential of blockchain technology and discuss plausible solutions.
1176Scopus© Citations 130
- PublicationThe role of 5G for digital healthcare against COVID-19 pandemic: Opportunities and challengesCOVID-19 pandemic caused a massive impact on healthcare, social life, and economies on a global scale. Apparently, technology has a vital role to enable ubiquitous and accessible digital health services in pandemic conditions as well as against “re-emergence” of COVID-19 disease in a post-pandemic era. Accordingly, 5G systems and 5G-enabled e-health solutions are paramount. This paper highlights methodologies to effectively utilize 5G for e-health use cases and its role to enable relevant digital services. It also provides a comprehensive discussion of the implementation issues, possible remedies and future research directions for 5G to alleviate the health challenges related to COVID-19.
993Scopus© Citations 93
- PublicationA Novel Blockchain-as-a-Service (BaaS) Platform for Local 5G Operators5G is a promising technology that has the potential to support verticals and applications such as Industrial Internet of Things IoT (IIoT), smart cities, autonomous vehicles, remote surgeries, virtual and augmented realities, and so on. These verticals have a diverse set of network connectivity requirements, and it is challenging to deliver customized services for each by using a common 5G infrastructure. Thus, the operation of Local 5G operator (L5GO) networks or private 5G networks are a viable option to tackle this challenge. A L5GO network is a localized small cell network which can offer tailored service delivery. The adaptation of network softwarization in 5G allows vertical owners to deploy and operate L5GO networks. However, the deployment of L5GOs raises various issues related to management of subscribers, roaming users, spectrum, security, and also the infrastructure. This paper proposes a blockchain-based platform to address these issues. The paper introduces a set of blockchain-based modularized functions such as service rating systems, bidding techniques, and selection functions, which can be used to deploy different services for L5GOs. Exploitation of blockchain technology ensures availability, non-reliance on trusted third parties, secure transfer payments, and stands to gain many more advantages. The performance and the viability of the proposed platform are analyzed by using simulations and a prototype implementation.
206Scopus© Citations 22
- PublicationProxy re-encryption enabled secure and anonymous IoT data sharing platform based on blockchainData is central to the Internet of Things (IoT) ecosystem. With billions of devices connected, most of the current IoT systems are using centralized cloud-based data sharing systems, which will be difficult to scale up to meet the demands of future IoT systems. The involvement of such a third-party service provider requires also trust from both the sensor owner and sensor data user. Moreover, fees need to be paid for their services. To tackle both the scalability and trust issues and to automatize the payments, this paper presents a blockchain-based marketplace for sharing of the IoT data. We also use a proxy re-encryption scheme for transferring the data securely and anonymously, from data producer to the consumer. The system stores the IoT data in cloud storage after encryption. To share the collected IoT data, the system establishes runtime dynamic smart contracts between the sensor and data consumer without the involvement of a trusted third-party. It also uses a very efficient proxy re-encryption scheme which allows that the data is only visible by the owner and the person present in the smart contract. This novel combination of smart contracts with proxy re-encryption provides an efficient, fast and secure platform for storing, trading and managing sensor data. The proposed system is implemented using off-the-shelf IoT sensors and computer devices. We also analyze the performance of our hybrid system by using the permission-less Ethereum blockchain and compare it to the IBM Hyperledger Fabric, a permissioned blockchain.
339Scopus© Citations 59
- PublicationMulti-Access Edge Computing and Blockchain-based Secure Telehealth System Connected with 5G and IoTThere is a global hype in the development of digital healthcare infrastructure to cater the massive elderly population and infectious diseases. The digital facilitation is expected to ensure the patient privacy, scalability, and data integrity on the sensitive life critical healthcare data, while aligning to the global healthcare data protection standards. The patient data sharing to third parties such as research institutions and universities is also concerned as a significant contribution to the society to sharpen the research and investigations. The emergence of 5G communication technologies eradicates the borders between patients, hospital and other institutions with high end service standards. In patients' perspective, healthcare service delivery through the digital medium is beneficial in terms of time, costs, and risks. In this paper, we propose a novel Multi-access Edge Computing(MEC) and blockchain based service architecture utilizing the lightweight ECQV (Elliptic Curve Qu-Vanstone) certificates for the realtime data privacy, integrity, and authentication between IoT, MEC, and cloud. We further attached storage offloading capability to the blockchain to ensure scalability with a massive number of connected medical devices to the cloud. We introduced a rewarding scheme to the patients and hospitals through the blockchain to encourage data sharing. The access control is handled through the smart contracts. We evaluated the proposed system in a near realistic implementation using Hyperledger Fabric blockchain platform with Raspberry Pi devices to simulate the activity of the medical sensors.
555Scopus© Citations 21
- PublicationRobust and Resilient Federated Learning for Securing Future NetworksMachine Learning (ML) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques are widely adopted in the telecommunication industry, especially to automate beyond 5G networks. Federated Learning (FL) recently emerged as a distributed ML approach that enables localized model training to keep data decentralized to ensure data privacy. In this paper, we identify the applicabil- ity of FL for securing future networks and its limitations due to the vulnerability to poisoning attacks. First, we investigate the shortcomings of state-of-the-art security algorithms for FL and perform an attack to circumvent FoolsGold algorithm, which is known as one of the most promising defense techniques currently available. The attack is launched with the addition of intelligent noise at the poisonous model updates. Then we propose a more sophisticated defense strategy, a threshold-based clustering mechanism to complement FoolsGold. Moreover, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the impact of the attack scenario and the performance of the defense mechanism.
- PublicationBlockchain-based Automated Certificate Revocation for 5G IoTInternet of Things (IoT) is a key topic of interest in modern communication context with the evolution of 5G and beyond ecosystems. 5G will interconnects billions of IoT devices wirelessly. The wireless communication exposes the devices to massive security risks in different dimensions. The Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is one of the promising solutions to eliminate security risks. It ensures the authentication and communication integrity by using public key certificates. However, the overhead of certificate storage is a significant problem for the resource constrained IoT devices. We propose an application of Elliptic Curve Qu Vanstone (ECQV) certificates, which are lightweight in size for the resource restricted IoT devices. Furthermore, we incorporate the blockchain based smart contracts to handle the certificate related operations. We utilize the smart contracts in the certificate issuance and developed a smart contract based threat scoring mechanism to automatically revoke the certificates. The lightweight nature of ECQV certificates enables the distributed ledger to store, update, and revoke the certificates. We evaluated the proposed solution in Hyperledger Fabric blockchain platform.
369Scopus© Citations 23
- PublicationFog Computing and Blockchain based Security Service Architecture for 5G Industrial IoT enabled Cloud ManufacturingRecent evolution of the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) empowers the classical manufacturing model with cloud computing integration for Industry 4.0. Cloud integration advances the capabilities of manufacturing systems with cloud-based controlling and real-time process monitoring which is renowned as Cloud Manufacturing(CM). However, cloud integration exposes the entire manufacturing ecosystem to a new set of security risks and increment in end-to-end latency. Moving security services towards the edge eradicates message routing latency towards the cloud and eliminates the central point of failure while leveraging the entire system performance. We propose a blockchain and fog computing enabled security service architecture that operates on fog nodes at the edge of manufacturing equipment clusters. The proposed service facilitates CM equipment authentication and Equipment-Cloud channel privacy protection while preserving anonymity and unlinkability over the blockchain. We implemented the proposed architecture with Hyperledger Fabric and compared the performance advantage over the state of art solutions.
8Scopus© Citations 26
- PublicationSurvey on Blockchain based Smart Contracts: Technical Aspects and Future ResearchInternet of Things (IoT) is an emerging technology that makes people’s lives smart by conquering a plethora of diverse application and service areas. In near future, the fifth-generation (5G) wireless networks provide the connectivity for this IoT ecosystem. It has been carefully designed to facilitate the exponential growth in the IoT field. Network slicing is one of the key technologies in the 5G architecture that has the ability to divide the physical network into multiple logical networks (i.e. slices) with different network characteristics. Therefore, network slicing is also a key enabler of realisation of IoT in 5G. Network slicing can satisfy the various networking demands by heterogeneous IoT applications via dedicated slices. In this survey, we present a comprehensive analysis of the exploitation of network slicing in IoT realisation. We discuss network slicing utilisation in different IoT application scenarios, along with the technical challenges that can be solved via network slicing. Furthermore, integration challenges and open research problems related to the network slicing in the IoT realisation are also discussed in this paper. Finally, we discuss the role of other emerging technologies and concepts, such as blockchain and Artificial Intelligence/Machine Learning(AI/ML) in network slicing and IoT integration
514Scopus© Citations 50
- PublicationPerformance Analysis of Local 5G Operator Architectures for Industrial Internet5G calls for a network architecture that ensures ultra-responsive and ultra-reliable communication links, in addition to the high degree of flexibility and customization required by different vertical sectors. The novel concept called local 5G networks enables a versatile set of stakeholders to operate 5G networks within their premises with guaranteed quality and reliability to complement Mobile Network Operators’ (MNOs) offerings. In this paper, we propose a descriptive architecture for a local 5G operator which provides user specific and location specific services in a spatially confined environment i.e. industrial internet environment. In addition to that, we propose hybrid architecture options where both the local 5G operator and MNO collaboratively contribute to establishing the core network to cater to such communications. The architecture is discussed in terms of network functions and the operational units which entail the core and radio access networks in a smart factory environment which supports Industry 4.0 standards. Moreover, to realize the conceptual design, we provide simulation results for the latency measurements of the proposed architecture options with respect to an Augmented Reality (AR), massive wireless sensor networks and mobile robots use cases. Thereby we discuss the benefits of deploying core network functions locally to cater to specialized user requirements, rather than continuing with the conventional approach where only MNOs can deploy cellular networks.
398Scopus© Citations 28