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The Role of Mitochondria in Optic Atrophy With Autosomal Inheritance
2021-11-15, Strachan, Elin L., Mac White-Begg, Delphi, Crean, John, Reynolds, Alison, Kennedy, Breandán, O'Sullivan, Niamh C.
Optic atrophy (OA) with autosomal inheritance is a form of optic neuropathy characterized by the progressive and irreversible loss of vision. In some cases, this is accompanied by additional, typically neurological, extra-ocular symptoms. Underlying the loss of vision is the specific degeneration of the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) which form the optic nerve. Whilst autosomal OA is genetically heterogenous, all currently identified causative genes appear to be associated with mitochondrial organization and function. However, it is unclear why RGCs are particularly vulnerable to mitochondrial aberration. Despite the relatively high prevalence of this disorder, there are currently no approved treatments. Combined with the lack of knowledge concerning the mechanisms through which aberrant mitochondrial function leads to RGC death, there remains a clear need for further research to identify the underlying mechanisms and develop treatments for this condition. This review summarizes the genes known to be causative of autosomal OA and the mitochondrial dysfunction caused by pathogenic mutations. Furthermore, we discuss the suitability of available in vivo models for autosomal OA with regards to both treatment development and furthering the understanding of autosomal OA pathology.
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Spatiotemporally Resolved Heat Dissipation in 3D Patterned Magnetically Responsive Hydrogels
2021-02-04, Monks, Patricia, Wychowaniec, Jacek K., McKiernan, Eoin, Clerkin, Shane, Crean, John, Rodriguez, Brian J., Reynaud, Emmanuel G., Heise, Andreas, Brougham, Dermot F.
Multifunctional nanocomposites that exhibit well-defined physical properties and encode spatiotemporally controlled responses are emerging as components for advanced responsive systems, for example, in soft robotics or drug delivery. Here an example of such a system, based on simple magnetic hydrogels composed of iron oxide magnetic nanoflowers and Pluronic F127 that generates heat upon alternating magnetic field irradiation is described. Rules for heat-induction in bulk hydrogels and the heat-dependence on particle concentration, gel volume, and gel exposed surface area are established, and the dependence on external environmental conditions in “closed” as compared to “open” (cell culture) system, with controllable heat jumps, of ∆T 0–12°C, achieved within ≤10 min and maintained described. Furthermore the use of extrusion-based 3D printing for manipulating the spatial distribution of heat in well-defined printed features with spatial resolution <150 µm, sufficiently fine to be of relevance to tissue engineering, is presented. Finally, localized heat induction in printed magnetic hydrogels is demonstrated through spatiotemporally-controlled release of molecules (in this case the dye methylene blue). The study establishes hitherto unobserved control over combined spatial and temporal induction of heat, the applications of which in developing responsive scaffold remodeling and cargo release for applications in regenerative medicine are discussed.