Now showing 1 - 4 of 4
  • Publication
    Bacterial adhesion onto nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes: Effect of permeate flux
    The influence of permeate flux on bacterial adhesion to NF and RO membranes was examined using two model Pseudomonas species, namely Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas putida. To better understand the initial biofouling profile during NF/RO processes, deposition experiments were conducted in cross flow under permeate flux varying from 0.5 up to 120 L/(h m2), using six NF and RO membranes each having different surface properties. All experiments were performed at a Reynolds number of 579. Complementary adhesion experiments were performed using Pseudomonas cells grown to early-, mid- and late-exponential growth phases to evaluate the effect of bacterial cell surface properties during cell adhesion under permeate flux conditions. Results from this study show that initial bacterial adhesion is strongly dependent on the permeate flux conditions, where increased adhesion was obtained with increased permeate flux, until a maximum of 40% coverage was reached. Membrane surface properties or bacterial growth stages was further found to have little impact on bacterial adhesion to NF and RO membrane surfaces under the conditions tested. These results emphasise the importance of conducting adhesion and biofouling experiments under realistic permeate flux conditions, and raises questions about the efficacy of the methods for the evaluation of antifouling membranes in which bacterial adhesion is commonly assessed under zero-flux or low flux conditions, unrepresentative of full-scale NF/RO processes.
      488Scopus© Citations 20
  • Publication
    Upon impact: the fate of adhering Pseudomonas fluorescens cells during Nanofiltration
    (American Chemical Society, 2014-07-29) ; ;
    Nanofiltration (NF) is a high-pressure membrane filtration process increasingly applied in drinking water treatment and water reuse processes. NF typically rejects divalent salts, organic matter, and micropollutants. However, the efficiency of NF is adversely affected by membrane biofouling, during which microorganisms adhere to the membrane and proliferate to create a biofilm. Here we show that adhered Pseudomonas fluorescens cells under high permeate flux conditions are met with high fluid shear and convective fluxes at the membrane-liquid interface, resulting in their structural damage and collapse. These results were confirmed by fluorescent staining, flow cytometry, and scanning electron microscopy. This present study offers a 'first-glimpse' of cell damage and death during the initial phases of bacterial adhesion to NF membranes and raises a key question about the role of this observed phenomena during early-stage biofilm formation under permeate flux and cross-flow conditions.
      281Scopus© Citations 9
  • Publication
    A physical impact of organic fouling layers on bacterial adhesion during nanofiltration
    Organic conditioning films have been shown to alter properties of surfaces, such as hydrophobicity and surface free energy. Furthermore, initial bacterial adhesion has been shown to depend on the conditioning film surface properties as opposed to the properties of the virgin surface. For the particular case of nanofiltration membranes under permeate flux conditions, however, the conditioning film thickens to form a thin fouling layer. This study hence sought to determine if a thin fouling layer deposited on a nanofiltration membrane under permeate flux conditions governed bacterial adhesion in the same manner as a conditioning film on a surface. Thin fouling layers (less than 50 μm thick) of humic acid or alginic acid were formed on Dow Filmtec NF90 membranes and analysed using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), confocal microscopy and surface energy techniques. Fluorescent microscopy was then used to quantify adhesion of Pseudomonas fluorescens bacterial cells onto virgin or fouled membranes under filtration conditions.It was found that instead of adhering on or into the organic fouling layer, the bacterial cells penetrated the thin fouling layer and adhered directly to the membrane surface underneath. Contrary to what surface energy measurements of the fouling layer would indicate, bacteria adhered to a greater extent onto clean membranes (24 ± 3% surface coverage) than onto those fouled with humic acid (9.8 ± 4%) or alginic acid (7.5 ± 4%). These results were confirmed by AFM measurements which indicated that a considerable amount of energy (10−7 J/μm) was dissipated when attempting to penetrate the fouling layers compared to adhering onto clean NF90 membranes (10−15 J/μm). The added resistance of this fouling layer was thusly seen to reduce the number of bacterial cells which could reach the membrane surface under permeate conditions. This research has highlighted an important difference between fouling layers for the particular case of nanofiltration membranes under permeate flux conditions and surface conditioning films which should be considered when conducting adhesion experiments under filtration conditions. It has also shown AFM to be an integral tool for such experiments.
      329Scopus© Citations 20
  • Publication
    The role of cell-surface interactions in bacterial initial adhesion and consequent biofilm formation on nanofiltration/reverse osmosis membranes
    Until recently, the realization that membrane biofouling during nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) processes is an unavoidable occurrence, has led to a paradigm shift in which biofouling management approaches rather than biofouling prevention are now being considered. To implement this new concept, it is crucial to understand the fundamentals of cell-surface interactions during bacterial adhesion, a prerequisite to biofouling of membranes. As such, with membrane biofouling already being widely studied and documented, greater attention should be given to the factors involved in the initial bioadhesion onto membranes during NF/RO processes. This review focuses on the interactions between bacterial cells and NF/RO membranes, emphasizing the mechanisms of bacterial adhesion to NF/RO membranes with particular reference to the effects of micro-environmental conditions experienced at the membrane interface, such as feed-water composition, hydrodynamics, permeate flux and conditioning layers. This review also discusses membrane surface properties and how it relates to bacterial adhesion as well as latest advancements in antibacterial membranes, identifying areas that need further investigation.
      1212Scopus© Citations 193