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- PublicationPower and influence in systemic consultation(1991)The disagreement between Haley and Bateson over the usefulness of the concept of power in accounting for problems in human systems is described. Seven propositions which address the main issues raised by the Haley-Bateson debate are then set out. Finally some clinical and ethical implications of these propositions are presented.
- PublicationMood congruent memory bias of individuals with depressed mood and anxietyFifteen individuals with clinically significant levels of both depressed mood and anxiety were compared with 20 demographically similar controls on implicit and explicit memory tests for recall of negative, physically threatening, socially threatening, positive and neutral word stimuli. Compared with the control group, the depressed and anxious group remembered more negative and socially threatening words and fewer positive words in both the implicit and explicit memory conditions. They also recalled more physically threatening words in the implicit memory test. These findings lend partial support to Williams et al.'s (1997) integrative multilevel theory of mood and memory.
- PublicationReductions in Specific First Memories in Depression: Influences of Distraction, Referential Set and Cue Word Valence on First Memory RetrievalThis study examined the association between depression and autobiographical memory deficits. Sp e cifically, it evaluate d the impact of depression, complexity of a distraction task, self - or other - referential set and positive or negative cue - word valence on the retrieval of specific autobiographical memories . A sample of 24 depressed women and 24 matched controls completed the Autobiographical Memory T ask (AMT) before and after either a high - or low - complexity distraction task. Compared with the control group, the depressed group retrieved fewer specific first memories and had longer retrieval latencies for these. In the self - referential condition this pattern was more pronounced than in the other - referential condition. This suggests that depression is associated with a particular vulnerability in recalling specific self - referential memories. Distraction task complexity and cue - word valence did not affect AMT performance.
- PublicationEffects of actual and potential stressor control on physiological and self reported stress responsesTwo experiments were conducted in which stressor controllability was varied while stressor predictability and other stressor properties were held constant. In each experiment stressor control led to a reduction in anticipatory physiological stress. These findings support the minimax hypothesis but contravene alternative theories that attribute the beneficial effects of stressor control to the predictive information furnished by controlling actions.
- PublicationChild sexual abuse in Ireland: A synthesis of two studies
- PublicationRecovery and relapse in multiproblem families following community based multidisciplinary treatmentIn a comparative group outcome study of 47 multiproblem families which received treatment from multidisciplinary child and family mental health services teams and 47 waiting list controls, it was found that treated cases showed significant improvement over the course of three months during which they attended the service. Improvement occurred in children's behavioural adjustment and maternal psychological health. Waiting list controls did not improve significantly on either of these variables during the three month treatment period. However, mean scores of the treatment group at nine months follow-up were not significantly better than pretreatment scores, indicating that gains made during treatment were lost at follow-up. An analysis of the clinical significance of changes in children's adjustment showed that while 41% of children moved from the clinical to the normal range during the course of treatment, all had relapsed at six-month follow up. These results point to the importance of developing a chronic care rather than an acute care approach to service provision for multiproblem families.
- PublicationThe epidemiology of child sexual abuseThe scale of child sexual abuse is the central concern in this chapter. There are two main types of studies which attempt to describe the scope of child sexual abuse. Firstly, there are incidence studies which seek to estimate the number of cases identified in a specific population during a given time period and in a given locality. Secondly, there are prevalence studies which attempt to estimate the proportion of a population that has been sexually abused in the course of their childhood. Incidence figures are usually expressed as a number of cases per 1000 children per annum in a designated geogaphical area. Prevalence figures, on the other hand, are expressed as a percentage of cases within a defined population reporting abuse.
- PublicationHow do we find out what works for whom? Evaluating the efficacy and effectiveness of psychotherapyControlled randomized clinical trials of psychotherapy have traditionally been used to test the efficacy of specific forms of psychotherapy for specific problems. The value of findings from such efficacy studies for practicing psychotherapists has been questioned because these studies involve clients and therapy procedures that are radically different from those typically used in routine clinical practice. Opponents of efficacy research have proposed health service-based effectiveness research as a more valuable alternative to efficacy research. Arguments for and against rigorously controlled efficacy research on the one hand, and 'real-world' effectiveness research on the other are explored in this paper.
- PublicationIrish drug abusers III: A psychosocial typologyThis is the final article in a series based on a study of a cohort of Irish drug abusers. Previous papers dealt with the overall social (Carr et al., 1980) and psychological (Carr et al., 1981) characteristics of the cohort. While certain general trends were identified, perhaps the most striking feature of the data was the variability that exists between subjects. In the present paper this variability will be explored and a psycho-social typology of drug abusers presented.
- PublicationBody-centred countertransference in female trauma therapists