Comparison at the first prenatal visit of the maternal dietary intakes of smokers with non-smokers in a large maternity hospital: a cross-sectional study

Title: Comparison at the first prenatal visit of the maternal dietary intakes of smokers with non-smokers in a large maternity hospital: a cross-sectional study
Authors: O'Malley, Eimer G.
Cawley, Shona
Reynolds, Ciara M.E.
Turner, Michael J.
et al.
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Date: 12-Jul-2018
Online since: 2019-05-15T11:55:10Z
Abstract: Objectives: Using detailed dietary and supplement questionnaires in early pregnancy, we compared the dietary intakes of micronutrients and macronutrients at the first prenatal visit of women who reported continuing to smoke during pregnancy with the intakes of women who were non-smokers. Design: Cross-sectional study conducted between June 2014 and March 2016. Setting: Stand-alone tertiary maternity hospital in an urban setting with approximately 8000 deliveries per year. Participants: Women were recruited at their convenience after sonographic confirmation of an ongoing singleton pregnancy (n=502). Detailed dietary and supplement information was available for 398 women. Women <18 years and those who did not speak English fluently were excluded. Primary and secondary outcome measures: The differences in dietary micronutrients and macronutrients and maternal folate levels between women who continued to smoke in pregnancy compared with non-smokers. Results: Of the 502 women, the mean age was 30.5 (SD 5.6) years, 42.5% were nulliparas, 19.2% were obese and 398 (79.3%) completed the questionnaire satisfactorily. In the 50 (12.6%) current smokers, the micronutrients magnesium, iron, carotene and copper were lower (all p<0.005) whereas sodium and chloride were higher compared with the 348 (87.4%) non-smokers. Smokers reported lower intakes of dietary total folate (p=0.006) compared with non-smokers (i.e., dietary folate equivalents; intake from natural and fortified dietary sources) (p=0.005). Smokers also reported lower intakes of fibre than non-smokers (13.1 g (IQR 7.7) vs 16.3 g (IQR 8.5), p<0.001). The dietary intakes of former smokers compared favourably with non-smokers. Conclusions: We found that women who continue to smoke during pregnancy have serious dietary inadequacies which could potentially aggravate fetal growth restriction associated with direct toxicity from cigarettes. This provides a further reason to promote smoking cessation interventions in pregnancy, and highlights the need for dietary and supplementation interventions in women who continue to smoke.
Type of material: Journal Article
Publisher: BMJ
Journal: BMJ Open
Volume: 8
Issue: 7
Start page: 1
End page: 7
Copyright (published version): 2018 the Authors
Keywords: Intrauterine fetal growthMaternal dietary intakesMaternal smokingMaternal folate levels
DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-021721
Language: ga
Status of Item: Peer reviewed
Appears in Collections:Medicine Research Collection

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