The role of awakening cortisol and psychological distress in diurnal variations in affect : a day reconstruction study

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Title: The role of awakening cortisol and psychological distress in diurnal variations in affect : a day reconstruction study
Authors: Daly, Michael
Delaney, Liam
Doran, Peter
MacLachlan, Malcolm
Permanent link: http://hdl.handle.net/10197/2694
Date: Jul-2010
Abstract: People often feel unhappy in the morning but better later in the day, and this pattern may be amplified in the distressed. Past work suggests that one function of cortisol is to energize people in the mornings. In a study of 174 students we tested to see if daily affect patterns, psychological distress, and awakening cortisol levels were interlinked. Affect levels were assessed using the Day Reconstruction Method (Kahneman, Krueger, Schkade, Schwarz, & Stone, 2004) and psychological distress was measured using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (Antony, Bieling, Cox, Enns, & Swinson, 1998). On average positive affect increased markedly in a linear pattern across the day whilst negative affect decreased linearly. For the highly distressed this pattern was stronger for positive affect. Lower than average morning cortisol, as assessed by two saliva samples at waking and two samples 30 minutes after waking, predicted a clear increasing pattern of positive affect throughout the day. When we examined the interlinkages between affect patterns, distress, and cortisol our results showed that a pronounced linear increase in positive affect from morning through to evening occurred chiefly among distressed people with below average cortisol levels upon awakening. Psychological distress, whilst not strongly associated with morning cortisol levels, does appear to interact with cortisol levels to profoundly influence affect.
Funding Details: Not applicable
Type of material: Working Paper
Publisher: University College Dublin. Geary Institute
Keywords: CortisolPsychological distressPositive affectDiurnal variationDay reconstruction method
Subject LCSH: Hydrocortisone--Physiological effect
Distress (Psychology)
Circadian rhythms
Language: en
Status of Item: Not peer reviewed
Appears in Collections:Geary Institute Working Papers

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