Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy in liquid using Electrochemical Force Microscopy
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|Title:||Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy in liquid using Electrochemical Force Microscopy||Authors:||Collins, Liam
Kilpatrick, J. I.
Rodriguez, Brian J.
|Permanent link:||http://hdl.handle.net/10197/6499||Date:||19-Jan-2015||Abstract:||Conventional closed loop-Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) has emerged as a powerful technique for probing electric and transport phenomena at the solid-gas interface. The extension of KPFM capabilities to probe electrostatic and electrochemical phenomena at the solid-liquid interface is of interest for a broad range of applications from energy storage to biological systems. However, the operation of KPFM implicitly relies on the presence of a linear lossless dielectric in the probe-sample gap, a condition which is violated for ionically-active liquids (e.g., when diffuse charge dynamics are present). Here, electrostatic and electrochemical measurements are demonstrated in ionically-active (polar isopropanol, milli-Q water and aqueous NaCl) and ionically-inactive (non-polar decane) liquids by electrochemical force microscopy (EcFM), a multidimensional (i.e., bias- and time-resolved) spectroscopy method. In the absence of mobile charges (ambient and non-polar liquids), KPFM and EcFM are both feasible, yielding comparable contact potential difference (CPD) values. In ionically-active liquids, KPFM is not possible and EcFM can be used to measure the dynamic CPD and a rich spectrum of information pertaining to charge screening, ion diffusion, and electrochemical processes (e.g., Faradaic reactions). EcFM measurements conducted in isopropanol and milli-Q water over Au and highly ordered pyrolytic graphite electrodes demonstrate both sample- and solvent-dependent features. Finally, the feasibility of using EcFM as a local force-based mapping technique of material-dependent electrostatic and electrochemical response is investigated. The resultant high dimensional dataset is visualized using a purely statistical approach that does notrequire a priori physical models, allowing for qualitative mapping of electrostatic and electrochemical material properties at the solid-liquid interface.||Type of material:||Journal Article||Publisher:||Beilstein-Institut||Copyright (published version):||2015 the Authors||Keywords:||Surface potential microscopy;Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM)||DOI:||10.3762/bjnano.6.19||Language:||en||Status of Item:||Peer reviewed|
|Appears in Collections:||Physics Research Collection|
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