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- PublicationCombining biomarker and food intake data(Wiley, 2022-02-15)Recent developments in biomarker discovery have demonstrated that combining biomarkers with self-reported intake data has the potential to improve estimation of food intake. Here, statistical methods for combining biomarker and self-reported food intake data are discussed. The calibration equations method is a widely applied method that corrects for measurement error in self-reported food intake data through the use of biomarker data. The method is outlined and illustrated through an example where citrus intake is estimated. In order to estimate stable calibration equations, a simulation-based framework is delineated which estimates the percentage of study subjects from whom biomarker data is required. The method of triads is frequently used to assess the validity of self-reported food intake data by combining it with biomarker data. The method is outlined and sensitivity to its underlying assumptions is illustrated through simulation studies.
- PublicationClassifying Individuals Into a Dietary Pattern Based on Metabolomic Data(Wiley, 2021-06)Scope: The objectives are to develop a metabolomic-based model capable of classifying individuals into dietary patterns and to investigate the reproducibility of the model. Methods and Results: K-means cluster analysis is employed to derive dietary patterns using metabolomic data. Differences across the dietary patterns are examined using nutrient biomarkers. The model is used to assign individuals to a dietary pattern in an independent cohort, A-DIET Confirm (n = 175) at four time points. The stability of participants to a dietary pattern is assessed. Four dietary patterns are derived: moderately unhealthy, convenience, moderately healthy, and prudent. The moderately unhealthy and convenience patterns has lower adherence to the alternative healthy eating index (AHEI) and the alternative mediterranean diet score (AMDS) compared to the moderately healthy and prudent patterns (AHEI = 24.5 and 22.9 vs 26.7 and 28.4, p < 0.001). The dietary patterns are replicated in A-DIET Confirm, with good reproducibility across four time points. The stability of participants’ dietary pattern membership ranged from 25.0% to 61.5%. Conclusion: The multivariate model classifies individuals into dietary patterns based on metabolomic data. In an independent cohort, the model classifies individuals into dietary patterns at multiple time points furthering the potential of such an approach for nutrition research.
17Scopus© Citations 5
- PublicationOptimisation of a metabotype approach to deliver targeted dietary advice(BMC, 2020-09-29)Background: Targeted nutrition is defined as dietary advice tailored at a group level. Groups known as metabotypes can be identified based on individual metabolic profiles. Metabotypes have been associated with differential responses to diet, which support their use to deliver dietary advice. We aimed to optimise a metabotype approach to deliver targeted dietary advice by encompassing more specific recommendations on nutrient and food intakes and dietary behaviours. Methods: Participants (n = 207) were classified into three metabotypes based on four biomarkers (triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and glucose) and using a k-means cluster model. Participants in metabotype-1 had the highest average HDL-cholesterol, in metabotype-2 the lowest triacylglycerol and total cholesterol, and in metabotype-3 the highest triacylglycerol and total cholesterol. For each participant, dietary advice was assigned using decision trees for both metabotype (group level) and personalised (individual level) approaches. Agreement between methods was compared at the message level and the metabotype approach was optimised to incorporate messages exclusively assigned by the personalised approach and current dietary guidelines. The optimised metabotype approach was subsequently compared with individualised advice manually compiled. Results: The metabotype approach comprised advice for improving the intake of saturated fat (69% of participants), fibre (66%) and salt (18%), while the personalised approach assigned advice for improving the intake of folate (63%), fibre (63%), saturated fat (61%), calcium (34%), monounsaturated fat (24%) and salt (14%). Following the optimisation of the metabotype approach, the most frequent messages assigned to address intake of key nutrients were to increase the intake of fruit and vegetables, beans and pulses, dark green vegetables, and oily fish, to limit processed meats and high-fat food products and to choose fibre-rich carbohydrates, low-fat dairy and lean meats (60-69%). An average agreement of 82.8% between metabotype and manual approaches was revealed, with excellent agreements in metabotype-1 (94.4%) and metabotype-3 (92.3%). Conclusions: The optimised metabotype approach proved capable of delivering targeted dietary advice for healthy adults, being highly comparable with individualised advice. The next step is to ascertain whether the optimised metabotype approach is effective in changing diet quality.
15Scopus© Citations 7
- PublicationNutrigenomics: lessons learned and future perspectives(Oxford University Press, 2021-01-29)The omics technologies of metabolomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metagenomics are playing an increasingly important role in nutrition science. With the emergence of the concept of precision nutrition and the need to understand individual responses to dietary interventions, it is an opportune time to examine the impact of these tools to date in human nutrition studies. Advances in our mechanistic understanding of dietary interventions were realized through incorporation of metabolomics, proteomics, and, more recently, metagenomics. A common observation across the studies was the low intra-individual variability of the omics measurements and the high inter-individual variation. Harnessing this data for use in the development of precision nutrition will be important. Metabolomics in particular has played a key role in the development of biomarkers of food intake in an effort to enhance the accuracy of dietary assessments. Further work is needed to realize the full potential of such biomarkers and to demonstrate integration with current strategies, with the goal of overcoming the well-established limitations of self-reported approaches. Although many of the nutrigenomic studies performed to date were labelled as proof-of-concept or pilot studies, there is ample evidence to support the use of these technologies in nutrition science. Incorporating omic technologies from the start of study designs will ensure that studies are sufficiently powered for such data. Furthermore, multi-disciplinary collaborations are likely to become even more important to aid analyses and interpretation of the data.
82Scopus© Citations 13
- PublicationThe Potential of Multi-Biomarker Panels in Nutrition Research: Total Fruit Intake as an Example(Frontiers Media, 2021-01-14)Dietary and food intake biomarkers offer the potential of improving the accuracy of dietary assessment. An extensive range of putative intake biomarkers of commonly consumed foods have been identified to date. As the field of food intake biomarkers progresses toward solving the complexities of dietary habits, combining biomarkers associated with single foods or food groups may be required. The objective of this work was to examine the ability of a multi-biomarker panel to classify individuals into categories of fruit intake. Biomarker data was measured using H NMR spectroscopy in two studies: (1) An intervention study where varying amounts of fruit was consumed and (2) the National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS). Using data from an intervention study a biomarker panel (Proline betaine, Hippurate, and Xylose) was constructed from three urinary biomarker concentrations. Biomarker cut-off values for three categories of fruit intake were developed. The biomarker sum cut-offs were ≤ 4.766, 4.766–5.976, >5.976 μM/mOsm/kg for <100, 101–160, and >160 g fruit intake. The ability of the biomarker sum to classify individuals into categories of fruit intake was examined in the cross-sectional study (NANS) (N = 565). Examination of results in the cross-sectional study revealed excellent agreement with self-reported intake: a similar number of participants were ranked into each category of fruit intake. The work illustrates the potential of multi-biomarker panels and paves the way forward for further development in the field. The use of such panels may be key to distinguishing foods and adding specificity to the predictions of food intake. 1
24Scopus© Citations 3