An Assessment of the Permeation Enhancer, 1-phenyl-piperazine (PPZ), on Paracellular Flux Across Rat Intestinal Mucosae in Ussing Chambers

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Title: An Assessment of the Permeation Enhancer, 1-phenyl-piperazine (PPZ), on Paracellular Flux Across Rat Intestinal Mucosae in Ussing Chambers
Authors: Bzik, V. A.Brayden, David James
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Date: Jul-2016
Online since: 2017-07-07T01:00:13Z
Abstract: Purpose: 1-phenyl piperazine (PPZ) emerged from a Caco-2 monolayer screen as having high enhancement potential due to a capacity to increase permeation without significant toxicity. Our aim was to further explore the efficacy and toxicity of PPZ in rat ileal and colonic mucosae in order to assess its true translation potential. Methods: Intestinal mucosae were mounted in Ussing chambers and apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) values of [14C]-mannitol and FITC-dextran 4 kDa (FD-4) and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) values were obtained following apical addition of PPZ (0.6–60 mM). Exposed issues were assessed for toxicity by histopathology and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Mucosal recovery after exposure was also assessed using TEER readings. Results: PPZ reversibly increased the Papp of both agents across rat ileal and distal colonic mucosae in concentration–dependent fashion, accompanied by TEER reduction, with acceptable levels of tissue damage. The complex mechanism of tight junction opening was part mediated by myosin light chain kinase, stimulation of transepithelial electrogenic chloride secretion, and involved activation of 5-HT4 receptors. Conclusions: PPZ is an efficacious and benign intestinal permeation enhancer in tissue mucosae. However, its active pharmacology suggest that potential for further development in an oral formulation for poorly permeable molecules will be difficult.
Funding Details: Science Foundation Ireland
University College Dublin
Type of material: Journal Article
Publisher: American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists
Journal: Pharmaceutical Research
Volume: 33
Issue: 10
Start page: 2506
Copyright (published version): 2016 Springer
Keywords: Epithelial tight junctionsIntestinal permeation enhancersOral peptidesPhenyl piperazineUssing chambers
DOI: 10.1007/s11095-016-1975-4
Language: en
Status of Item: Peer reviewed
Appears in Collections:Conway Institute Research Collection
Veterinary Medicine Research Collection

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