Safety concerns over the use of intestinal permeation enhancers: A mini-review

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Title: Safety concerns over the use of intestinal permeation enhancers: A mini-review
Authors: McCartney, Fiona
Gleeson, John P.
Brayden, David James
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Date: 12-Apr-2016
Online since: 2017-04-12T01:00:12Z
Abstract: Intestinal permeation enhancers (PEs) are key components in ∼12 oral peptide formulations in clinical trials for a range of molecules, primarily insulin and glucagon-like-peptide 1 (GLP-1) analogs. The main PEs comprise medium chain fatty acid-based systems (sodium caprate, sodium caprylate, and N-[8-(2-hydroxybenzoyl) amino] caprylate (SNAC)), bile salts, acyl carnitines, and EDTA. Their mechanism of action is complex with subtle differences between the different molecules. With the exception of SNAC and EDTA, most PEs fluidize the plasma membrane causing plasma membrane perturbation, as well as enzymatic and intracellular mediator changes that lead to alteration of intestinal epithelial tight junction protein expression. The question arises as to whether PEs can cause irreversible epithelial damage and tight junction openings sufficient to permit co-absorption of payloads with bystander pathogens, lipopolysaccharides and its fragment, or exo- and endotoxins that may be associated with sepsis, inflammation and autoimmune conditions. Most PEs seem to cause membrane perturbation to varying extents that is rapidly reversible, and overall evidence of pathogen co-absorption is generally lacking. It is unknown however, whether the intestinal epithelial damage-repair cycle is sustained during repeat-dosing regimens for chronic therapy.
Funding Details: Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine
European Commission - Seventh Framework Programme (FP7)
Science Foundation Ireland
Type of material: Journal Article
Publisher: Taylor and Francis
Journal: Tissue and Cell
Volume: 4
Issue: 2
Copyright (published version): 2016 Taylor and Francis
Keywords: SNACEpithelial toxicityIntestinal permeation enhancersMedium chain fatty acidsOral peptide deliverySodium caprate
DOI: 10.1080/21688370.2016.1176822
Language: en
Status of Item: Peer reviewed
Appears in Collections:Conway Institute Research Collection
Veterinary Medicine Research Collection

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