Emulated Inertial Response from Wind Power: Ancillary Service Design and System Scheduling Considerations

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Title: Emulated Inertial Response from Wind Power: Ancillary Service Design and System Scheduling Considerations
Authors: Daly, PádraigRuttledge, LisaPower, MichaelFlynn, Damian
Permanent link: http://hdl.handle.net/10197/8200
Date: 26-Aug-2016
Online since: 2016-12-09T15:38:17Z
Abstract: Worldwide, variable-speed wind turbine and solar photovoltaic generation are displacing conventional power plant in market schedules. Committing out-of-merit conventional units to redress system synchronous inertia or primary frequency response shortfalls incurs start-up and production costs, and may also engender additional greenhouse gas emissions and wind/solar curtailment. In order to ensure that future system frequency response requirements are met in a low carbon manner, new sources of frequency stability ancillary services will need to be incentivised or mandated via grid codes. Nonsynchronous devices (batteries, flywheels, variable-speed wind turbines), with appropriate control architectures, can provide a fast frequency response following a system disturbance, i.e. a temporary injection of active power, supplied faster than existing primary frequency response deployment times. Operational considerations relevant to transmission system operators when designing a fast frequency response ancillary service are presented, particularly if sourced from wind power emulated inertial response. It is shown that careful consideration regarding the design of fast frequency response characteristics is required in high wind power systems: the system frequency response behaviour may be degraded if a holistic approach to fast frequency response design is not taken. A method to characterise the system-wide (aggregate) emulated inertial response from wind power is presented, which can be integrated as a form of fast frequency response within unit commitment and economic dispatch. Endogenous incorporation in unit commitment and economic dispatch ensures that non-synchronous fast frequency response sources do not only supplement existing fossil fuel-based spinning reserve provision, but also reduce the need to commit synchronous generators for frequency control reasons. However, given the inherent energy recovery/payback experienced by variable-speed wind turbines providing emulated inertial response when operating below rated output, it is imperative to consider the impact of such negative power trajectories on system primary frequency response requirements.
Funding Details: Irish Research Council
Type of material: Conference Publication
Publisher: CIGRE
Keywords: Emulated inertial responseReserve allocationUnit commitmentWind power generation
Other versions: http://www.cigre.org/Events/Session/Session-2016
Language: en
Status of Item: Not peer reviewed
Conference Details: 2016 CIGRE Session, Paris, France, 21-26 August 2016
Appears in Collections:ERC Research Collection
Electrical and Electronic Engineering Research Collection
Energy Institute Research Collection

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