Now showing 1 - 4 of 4
  • Publication
    Time Series Classification by Sequence Learning in All-Subsequence Space
    Existing approaches to time series classification can be grouped into shape-based (numeric) and structure-based (symbolic). Shape-based techniques use the raw numeric time series with Euclidean or Dynamic Time Warping distance and a 1-Nearest Neighbor classifier. They are accurate, but computationally intensive. Structure-based methods discretize the raw data into symbolic representations, then extract features for classifiers. Recent symbolic methods have outperformed numeric ones regarding both accuracy and efficiency. Most approaches employ a bag-of-symbolic-words representation, but typically the word-length is fixed across all time series, an issue identified as a major weakness in the literature. Also, there are no prior attempts to use efficient sequence learning techniques to go beyond single words, to features based on variable-length sequences of words or symbols. We study an efficient linear classification approach, SEQL, originally designed for classification of symbolic sequences. SEQL learns discriminative subsequences from training data by exploiting the all-subsequence space using greedy gradient descent. We explore different discretization approaches, from none at all to increasing smoothing of the original data, and study the effect of these transformations on the accuracy of SEQL classifiers. We propose two adaptations of SEQL for time series data, SAX-VSEQL, can deal with X-axis offsets by learning variable-length symbolic words, and SAX-VFSEQL, can deal with X-axis and Y-axis offsets, by learning fuzzy variable-length symbolic words. Our models are linear classifiers in rich feature spaces. Their predictions are based on the most discriminative subsequences learned during training, and can be investigated for interpreting the classification decision.
      884Scopus© Citations 29
  • Publication
    Interpretable Time Series Classification using Linear Models and Multi-resolution Multi-domain Symbolic Representations
    The time series classification literature has expanded rapidly over the last decade, with many new classification approaches published each year. Prior research has mostly focused on improving the accuracy and efficiency of classifiers, with interpretability being somewhat neglected. This aspect of classifiers has become critical for many application domains and the introduction of the EU GDPR legislation in 2018 is likely to further emphasize the importance of interpretable learning algorithms. Currently, state-of-the-art classification accuracy is achieved with very complex models based on large ensembles (COTE) or deep neural networks (FCN). These approaches are not efficient with regard to either time or space, are difficult to interpret and cannot be applied to variable-length time series, requiring pre-processing of the original series to a set fixed-length. In this paper we propose new time series classification algorithms to address these gaps. Our approach is based on symbolic representations of time series, efficient sequence mining algorithms and linear classification models. Our linear models are as accurate as deep learning models but are more efficient regarding running time and memory, can work with variable-length time series and can be interpreted by highlighting the discriminative symbolic features on the original time series. We advance the state-of-the-art in time series classification by proposing new algorithms built using the following three key ideas: (1) Multiple resolutions of symbolic representations: we combine symbolic representations obtained using different parameters, rather than one fixed representation (e.g., multiple SAX representations); (2) Multiple domain representations: we combine symbolic representations in time (e.g., SAX) and frequency (e.g., SFA) domains, to be more robust across problem types; (3) Efficient navigation in a huge symbolic-words space: we extend a symbolic sequence classifier (SEQL) to work with multiple symbolic representations and use its greedy feature selection strategy to effectively filter the best features for each representation. We show that our multi-resolution multi-domain linear classifier (mtSS-SEQL+LR) achieves a similar accuracy to the state-of-the-art COTE ensemble, and to recent deep learning methods (FCN, ResNet), but uses a fraction of the time and memory required by either COTE or deep models. To further analyse the interpretability of our classifier, we present a case study on a human motion dataset collected by the authors. We discuss the accuracy, efficiency and interpretability of our proposed algorithms and release all the results, source code and data to encourage reproducibility.
      894Scopus© Citations 46
  • Publication
    Background Knowledge Injection for Interpretable Sequence Classification
    Sequence classification is the supervised learning task of building models that predict class labels of unseen sequences of symbols. Although accuracy is paramount, in certain scenarios interpretability is a must. Unfortunately, such trade-off is often hard to achieve since we lack human-independent interpretability metrics. We introduce a novel sequence learning algorithm, that combines (i) linear classifiers - which are known to strike a good balance between predictive power and interpretability, and (ii) background knowledge embeddings. We extend the classic subsequence feature space with groups of symbols which are generated by background knowledge injected via word or graph embeddings, and use this new feature space to learn a linear classifier. We also present a new measure to evaluate the interpretability of a set of symbolic features based on the symbol embeddings. Experiments on human activity recognition from wearables and amino acid sequence classification show that our classification approach preserves predictive power, while delivering more interpretable models.
  • Publication
    Efficient Sequence Regression by Learning Linear Models in All-Subsequence Space
    We present a new approach for learning a sequence regression function, i.e., a mapping from sequential observations to a numeric score. Our learning algorithm employs coordinate gradient descent with Gauss-Southwell optimization in the feature space of all subsequences. We give a tight upper bound for the coordinate wise gradients of squared error loss which enables efficient Gauss-Southwell selection. The proposed bound is built by separating the positive and the negative gradients of the loss function and exploits the structure of the feature space. Extensive experiments on simulated as well as real-world sequence regression benchmarks show that the bound is effective and our proposed learning algorithm is efficient and accurate. The resulting linear regression model provides the user with a list of the most predictive features selected during the learning stage, adding to the interpretability of the method. Code and data related to this chapter are available at: