Now showing 1 - 10 of 17
  • Publication
    Relationship between the essential and toxic element concentrations and the proximate composition of different commercial and internal cuts of young beef
    This paper seeks to evaluate the relationship between the trace element concentrations and the proximate composition of different cuts of young beef to provide helpful information to consumers in the selection of meat that could fit different nutritional requirements. Ten commercially cuts of young beef (rib boneless entrecote, tenderloin, eye round, thick flank, tail of rump, chuck tender, shin, upper chuck, flank and brisket) together with two internal muscles (diaphragm and cardiac muscle) from ten male Galician blonde calves aged approximately 9 months at slaughter and a carcass weight of 242 ± 2 kg were analyzed. A strong negative association between the main essential trace elements (Co, Cu, Fe, Mn and Se) and the protein concentration of the muscles was found, which could be related to the variable predominance of slow- or fast-twitch fibers in the different muscles. Since trace mineral concentrations in muscle are partly genetically determined and related to palatability traits, understanding the relationships between the trace element concentrations and the proximate composition could be a valuable tool for selective breeding of beef to improve the nutritional value of meat.
    Scopus© Citations 9  76
  • Publication
    Essential and toxic trace element concentrations in different commercial veal cuts in Spain
    The aim of this study was to evaluate essential and toxic element concentration of ten commercially available veal cuts, together with diaphragm, cardiac muscle and liver tissue from 10 animals of 'Galician Supreme Veal'. Essential trace elements (Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se and Zn) and toxic elements (As, Cd, Hg and Pb) were determined by ICP-MS. Essential trace element concentrations ranged from 0.002–55.64 mg/kg between muscles. Toxic element concentrations were very low, and high numbers of samples showed unquantifiable residues of Cd and Pb. Veal cuts including muscles with a high proportion of oxidative slow-twitch fibers (diaphragm and cardiac muscle) showed significantly higher essential trace element concentrations, the lower concentrations being found in veal cuts including glycolytic fast-twitch fibers (eye round). Our results suggest that essential and toxic trace element concentration could be used as a new meat quality parameter, or to add further value to certain products (i.e. livestock reared on extensive systems with high physical activity).
      500Scopus© Citations 30
  • Publication
    Macroalgae for Functional Feed Development: Applications in Aquaculture, Ruminant and Swine Feed Industries
    Plant and animal derived products are the main ingredients currently used by the feed industry to produce concentrate feed. There is a need of novel feed ingredients to meet the demand of high quality products by the aquaculture, ruminant and swine production systems, together with the challenge of implementing new sustainable and environmentally friendly processes and ingredients demanded by the modern society. Macroalgae are a large and diverse group of marine organisms that are able to produce a wide range of compounds with unique biological properties. This chapter discusses the incorporation of macroalgae or macroalgal derived ingredients as a source of both macro-nutrients (i.e., proteins, polysaccharides and fatty acids) and micro-nutrients (i.e., minerals and pigments) for animal feed production. The biological health benefits of the macroalgal ingredients beyond basic nutrition for the development of functional feed in the aquaculture, the ruminant and the swine sectors are also discussed together with the industrial challenges of its application.
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  • Publication
    Influence of farm type (organic, conventional and intensive) on toxic metal accumulation in calves in NW Spain
    (Institute of Technology, Estonian University of Life Sciences, 2006-08-27) ; ; ; ; ;
    The aim of the present study was to determine how accumulation of toxic metals by beef-cattle in NW Spain varies between farms that have markedly different practices (including intensive, conventional and organic management) and to determine possible key factors affecting toxic metal assimilation by cattle. Soil, feed (forage and concentrate) and animal tissues (liver and kidney from 120 calves) were collected from nine farms across NW Spain and were analysed for metals by ICP-MS. Toxic metal concentrations in beef calves were generally low but did vary significantly between farms. There were no consistent patterns of difference in tissue metal concentrations between farms from different regions or between farms with different management practices. Variations in arsenic, cadmium and mercury concentrations in calf tissues were not significantly explained by soil or diet metal concentrations but were significantly and inversely related to the proportion of concentrate in the ration. Higher levels of metal residues in tissues were associated with consumption of low amounts of concentrate and relatively high levels of grazing. Higher toxic metal intake due to grazing is likely to be largely a result of soil ingestion.
      45
  • Publication
    Developing seaweed/macroalgae as feed for pigs
    Macroalgae are a promising source of nutritional ingredients including proteins, polysaccharides and minerals. The need to increase animal and feed production has increased interest in macroalgae as underutilised resources with promising applications as alternative animal feeds. This chapter summarizes the nutritional attributes of macroalgae in terms of macro and micronutrients as a source of protein and other compounds in pig nutrition. The benefits of macroalgae or macroalgal derived extracts in feed are discussed together with future trends and challenges in the development of effective feed formulations.
      244
  • Publication
    Evaluation of the need of copper supplementation in intensively reared beef cattle
    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate whether, in the nutritional management of commercial feedlots of NW Spain based mainly on concentrate feed from international raw materials, copper (Cu) supplementation is justified to maintain the physiological requirements. This was done by evaluating blood Cu parameters (serum Cu, whole blood Cu and serum caeruloplasmin), haematological (red blood cells, microhematocrit, haemoglobin, white blood cells, and thrombocytes), productive parameters (initial and final live weight, feed intake, average daily gain, carcass weight and performance and internal organs weight) and organic Cu accumulation at slaughter (liver, kidney, muscle, spleen and brain) in intensive beef cattle that received a standard diet with 15. mg/kg of Cu sulphate (Cu supplemented group, n = 10) and without Cu (non-supplemented group, n = 10) during all the productive cycle (growing and finishing periods and animals aged 12 to 36. weeks). In general Cu supplementation did not statistically affect blood Cu indicators, productive and haematologic parameters, and the levels of these parameters were within their normal ranges during the whole study. There were significant statistic differences in tissue Cu accumulation, mainly in the liver, with 90% of the animals of the Cu supplemented group showing hepatic Cu levels exceeding the adequate range and 50% within the concentrations associated with Cu toxicity. Under the conditions of this study, which are the conditions of the cattle raised under intensive methods in many European countries, routinely Cu supplementation is not justified to maintain an adequate Cu status in the animals or to improve productive parameters. More information about the risk of presence of Cu antagonists in the concentrate diets should be necessary to justify routinely Cu supplementation in intensively reared beef cattle.
      345Scopus© Citations 20
  • Publication
    The involvement of metallothionein in hepatic and renal Cd, Cu and Zn accumulation in pigs
    This study investigated the involvement of metallothionein (MT) in hepatic and renal cadmium (Cd) accumulation and the interactions of this element with the essential elements copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in pigs receiving diets with or without Cu and Zn supplementation, in intensive and extensive production systems respectively. Animals from intensive systems showed significantly higher Cd concentrations in the liver (83.3 μg/kg wet weight) and kidney (343 μg/kg) than animals from extensive systems (33.2 and 130 μg/kg respectively). Cu (liver 16.9, kidney 5.52. mg/kg) and Zn (82.8 and 29.7. mg/kg) concentrations were also significantly higher in pigs from intensive than in animals from extensive systems (Cu 10.1 and 4.64. mg/kg, Zn 66.2 and 23.1. mg/kg). Pigs from intensive systems showed 50% higher kidney MT concentrations than animals from extensive systems (278 and 183. mg/kg respectively), whereas liver MT concentrations were very similar in the two groups (1696 and 1517. mg/kg respectively). MT concentrations in both the liver and the kidney were strongly dependent on the Zn status of the animal. In the liver neither Cu nor Cd displaced Zn from MT, and the proportion of MT binding sites apparently occupied by Cu and Cd decreased with increasing hepatic MT concentration, despite the fact that both Cu and Cd have higher affinity for MT than Zn. The proportion of MT binding sites occupied by Cu and Cd was also directly related to Zn:Cu ratio in hepatic cells. In the kidney, in contrast, Cu seems able to compete with Zn for MT binding sites, and the proportion of MT binding sites occupied by Cu increased with increasing renal MT concentration. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
    Scopus© Citations 9  236
  • Publication
    Effect of type of muscle and Cu supplementation on trace element concentrations in cattle meat
    Considering that meat is an important source of metals exposure to humans it is important to explore trace element concentrations in different types of muscles. Because of the demonstrated effect of Cu-supplementation on mineral status, the influence of Cu-supplementation was also evaluated. Samples of four different muscles (diaphragm, cardiac, semitendinous and pectoral, n=120) from beef calves receiving typical commercial diets Cu-supplemented (15mg Cu2SO4/kg DM) and non-supplemented were taken and acid digested. The levels of non-essential (As, Cd, Hg, Pb and Sn) and essential (Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se and Zn) elements were analyzed by ICP-MS. The statistical analyzes included two way Anova, post hoc DHS Tukey and Spearman correlations. The most active and less fat containing muscles showed in general the highest essential and the lowest non-essential trace element accumulation. As and Hg muscular residues are indicative of animal exposure, however, in situations of an adequate mineral status, essential trace element concentrations in muscle are irrespective of the mineral status of the animal and could be possibly related to their own particular muscular metabolism. Cu-supplementation significantly reduced As but caused a significant decrease of Se, which could have significance for the animal's health.
    Scopus© Citations 34  287
  • Publication
    New Breeding Strategies in Organic Dairy Farming
    The selection of an appropriate breed in dairy farms will have a huge influence on the animals’ welfare and production. This is especially noticeable in animal production systems that aim to maximize the use of on-farm resources (low-input production), i.e., organic farms. The animal production in organic farming systems focuses on maximizing the utilization of forage and improving the animals’ health and welfare, while reducing the application of drugs routinely applied in the treatment and prevention of diseases in the conventional farms. Thus, the selection of animals adapted to these harsh farming conditions is essential for the success of an organic farm. However, the current animal breeding strategies adopted by the farmers do not differ between the intensive and the organic animal production systems; i.e., the Holstein-Friesian is the most commonly used breed in the organic and intensive dairy farms, despite the poor production and adaptability of these animals to the organic production systems. Recent studies showed that animals bred to produce high milk yields in the conventional systems are not capable to adapt to pasture-based systems. Cattle breeding strategies based on the selection of the animals for functional traits, or the efficiency of the cows to use scarce resources (inputs), could be a good strategy when selecting animals for organic farms. This chapter analyzes the animal breeding strategies currently performed in the organic farms, and discusses the novel strategies and animal breeds that could potentially benefit different organic dairy farming systems, including multifunctional farms.
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  • Publication
    Seasonal Variation of the Proximate Composition, Mineral Content, Fatty Acid Profiles and Other Phytochemical Constituents of Selected Brown Macroalgae
    The main objective was to determine the chemical, phytochemical, fatty acid and mineral profiles of three commercially relevant brown macroalgae (Laminaria digitata, Laminaria hyperborea and Ascophyllum nodosum) collected each season for two years off the west coast of Ireland. All the chemical, phytochemical, fatty acid and minerals analysed varied significantly depending on the macroalgal species, season and year of collection. Overall, the protein contents of macroalgae were negatively correlated with carbohydrate content. Protein (2–11%) was at its highest during winter and/or spring, decreasing to a minimum during summer and/or autumn. The three macroalgal species analysed in this study had clearly differentiated fatty acid profiles. The concentration of fatty acids was higher in A. nodosum compared with both Laminaria species. The mineral profile of the three macroalgal species was rich in essential metals, particularly Ca, Mg and P, while the levels of I were approximately 9- to 10-fold higher in both Laminaria spp. compared with A. nodosum. The levels of toxic metals (Cd, Hg and Pb) in all the macroalgal species studied were low in the current study; while the levels of total As were high (49–64 mg/kg DW macroalgae) compared with previous reports.
      283Scopus© Citations 31