Now showing 1 - 10 of 19
  • Publication
    Detection of Bridge Dynamic Parameters Using an Instrumented Vehicle
    (World Conference on Structural Control and Monitoring, 2010) ; ;
    Highway structures such as bridges are subject to continuous degradation primarily due to ageing and environmental factors. A rational transport policy requires the monitoring of this transport infrastructure to provide adequate maintenance and guarantee the required levels of transport service and safety. In Europe, this is now a legal requirement - a European Directive requires all member states of the European Union to implement a Bridge Management System. However, the process is expensive, requiring the installation of sensing equipment and data acquisition electronics on the bridge. This paper investigates the use of an instrumented vehicle fitted with accelerometers on its axles to monitor the dynamic behaviour of bridges as an indicator of its structural condition. This approach eliminates the need for any on-site installation of measurement equipment. A simplified half-car vehicle-bridge interaction model is used in theoretical simulations to test the possibility of extracting the dynamic parameters of the bridge from the spectra of vehicle accelerations. The effect of vehicle speed, vehicle mass and bridge span length on the detection of the bridge dynamic parameters are investigated. The algorithm is highly sensitive to the condition of the road profile and simulations are carried out for both smooth and rough profiles.
      449
  • Publication
    Experimental Investigation of Drive-by Bridge Inspection
    This study presents a vibration-based health monitoring strategy for short span bridges utilizing an inspection vehicle. How to screen health condition of short span bridges in terms of the drive-by bridge inspection is described. Feasibility of the drive-by bridge inspection is investigated through a scaled laboratory moving vehicle experiment. The feasibility of using an instrumented vehicle to detect the natural frequency and changes in structural damping of a model bridge is observed. Observations also demonstrate the possibility of diagnosis of bridges by comparing patterns of identified dynamic parameters of bridges through periodical monitoring. It is confirmed that the moving vehicle method identifies the damage location and severity well.
      592
  • Publication
    Monitoring Bridge Dynamic Behaviour Using an Instrumented Two Axle Vehicle
    Highway structures such as bridges are subject to continuous degradation primarily due to ageing, loading and environmental factors. A rational transport policy must monitor and provide adequate maintenance to this infrastructure to guarantee the required levels of transport service and safety. Increasingly in recent years, bridges are being instrumented and monitored on an ongoing basis due to the implementation of Bridge Management Systems. This is very effective and provides a high level of protection to the public and early warning if the bridge becomes unsafe. However, the process can be expensive and time consuming, requiring the installation of sensors and data acquisition electronics on the bridge. This paper investigates the use of an instrumented 2-axle vehicle fitted with accelerometers to monitor the dynamic behaviour of a bridge network in a simple and cost-effective manner. A simplified half car-beam interaction model is used to simulate the passage of a vehicle over a bridge. This investigation involves the frequency domain analysis of the axle accelerations as the vehicle crosses the bridge. The spectrum of the acceleration record contains noise, vehicle, bridge and road frequency components. Therefore, the bridge dynamic behaviour is monitored in simulations for both smooth and rough road surfaces. The vehicle mass and axle spacing are varied in simulations along with bridge structural damping in order to analyse the sensitivity of the vehicle accelerations to a change in bridge properties. These vehicle accelerations can be obtained for different periods of time and serve as a useful tool to monitor the variation of bridge frequency and damping with time.
      267
  • Publication
    Dynamic Axle Force and Road Profile Identification Using a Moving Vehicle
    The axle forces applied by a vehicle through its wheels are a critical part of the interaction between vehicles, pavements and bridges. Therefore, the minimisation of these forces is important in order to promote long pavement life spans and ensure that bridge loads are small. Moreover, as the road surface roughness affects the vehicle dynamic forces, the monitoring of pavements for highways and bridges is an important task. This paper presents a novel algorithm to identify these dynamic interaction forces which involves direct instrumentation of a vehicle with accelerometers. The ability of this approach to predict the pavement roughness is also presented. Moving force identification theory is applied to a vehicle model in theoretical simulations in order to obtain the interaction forces and pavement roughness from the measured accelerations. The method is tested for a range of bridge spans in simulations and the influence of road roughness level on the accuracy of the results is investigated. Finally, the challenge for the real-world problem is addressed in a laboratory experiment.
      237
  • Publication
    Using instrumented vehicles to detect damage in bridges
    (Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, 2012-07-22) ; ; ;
    Bridge structures are subject to continuous degradation due to the environment, ageing and excess loading. Monitoring of bridges is a key part of any maintenance strategy as it can give early warning if a bridge is becoming unsafe. This paper will theoretically assess the ability of a vehicle fitted with accelerometers on its axles to detect changes in damping of bridges, which may be the result of damage. Two vehicle models are used in this investigation. The first is a two degree-of-freedom quarter-car and the second is a four degree-of-freedom halfcar. The bridge is modelled as a simply supported beam and the interaction between the vehicle and the bridge is a coupled dynamic interaction algorithm. Both smooth and rough road profiles are used in the simulation and results indicate that changes in bridge damping can be detected by the vehicle models for a range of vehicle velocities and bridge spans.
      767
  • Publication
    Theoretical investigation of the use of a moving vehicle to identify bridge dynamic parameters
    (British Institute of Non-Destructive Testing, 2009-08) ; ;
    Pavements and bridges are subject to a continuous degradation due to traffic aggressiveness, ageing and environmental factors. A rational transport policy requires the monitoring of this transport infrastructure in order to provide adequate maintenance and guarantee the required levels of transport service and safety. This paper investigates the use of an instrumented vehicle fitted with accelerometers on its axles to monitor the dynamics of bridges. A simplified quarter car-bridge interaction model is used in theoretical simulations and the natural frequency of the bridge is extracted from the spectra of the vehicle accelerations. The accuracy is better at lower speeds and for smooth road profiles. The structural damping of the bridge was also monitored for smooth and rough road profiles. The magnitude of peaks in the power spectral density of the vehicle accelerations decreased with increasing bridge damping and this decrease was easier to detect the smoother the road profile.
      1732Scopus© Citations 123
  • Publication
    Characterisation of pavement profile heights using accelerometer readings and a combinatorial optimisation technique
    Pavement surface profiles induce dynamic ride responses in vehicles which can potentially be used to classify road surface roughness. A novel method is proposed for the characterisation of pavement roughness through an analysis of vehicle accelerations. A combinatorial optimisation technique is applied to the determination of pavement profile heights based on measured accelerations at and above the vehicle axle. Such an approach, using low-cost inertial sensors, would provide an inexpensive alternative to the costly laser-based profile measurement vehicles. The concept is numerically validated using a half-car roll dynamic model to infer measurements of road profiles in both the left and right wheel paths.
      1981
  • Publication
    Damping Detection for Periodic Bridge Health Monitoring Using a Moving Vehicle
    In the past decade there has been a considerable increase in the number of bridges being instrumented for the purposes of vibration based monitoring, typically to monitor dynamic parameters such as frequencies and mode shapes. This type of approach using direct measurements can be very accurate and provide valuable information about a bridge structure. However, drawbacks of this approach include the time and expense associated with the installation of sensors and data acquisition equipment on the bridge. Also, although short to medium span bridges form the greatest proportion of transport networks worldwide, a large percentage of these are not instrumented. Therefore, more recently, a number of researchers have investigated the use of an alternative low-cost approach to monitor bridge dynamic parameters which involves the use of a moving vehicle fitted with accelerometers on its axles. By taking measurements on the vehicle only, this type of indirect method reduces the need for direct installations on the bridge. It is therefore aimed at providing an efficient alternative for the preliminary screening of the condition of short to medium span bridges in a transport network. In this paper, the feasibility of use of the instrumented moving vehicle to detect changes in bridge damping is investigated in a laboratory experiment. The damping of the bridge is used as a damage indicator in this paper as it has been shown to be damage sensitive. Furthermore, it has been found in numerical investigations that it is possible to detect changes in bridge damping from the acceleration response of an instrumented vehicle.
      199
  • Publication
    Identification of Road Irregularities via Vehicle Accelerations
    A periodic monitoring of the pavement condition facilitates a cost-effective distribution of the resources available for maintenance of the road infrastructure network. The task can be accurately carried out using profilometers, but such an approach is generally expensive. This paper presents a method to collect information on the road profile via accelerometers mounted in a fleet of non-specialist vehicles, such as police cars, that are in use for other purposes. It proposes an optimisation algorithm, based on Cross Entropy theory, to predict road irregularities. The Cross Entropy algorithm estimates the height of the road irregularities from vehicle accelerations at each point in time. To test the algorithm, the crossing of a half-car roll model is simulated over a range of road profiles to obtain accelerations of the vehicle sprung and unsprung masses. Then, the simulated vehicle accelerations are used as input in an iterative procedure that searches for the best solution to the inverse problem of finding road irregularities. In each iteration, a sample of road profiles is generated and an objective function defined as the sum of squares of differences between the ‘measured’ and predicted accelerations is minimized until convergence is reached. The reconstructed profile is classified according to ISO and IRI recommendations and compared to its original class. Results demonstrate that the approach is feasible and that a good estimate of the short-wavelength features of the road profile can be detected, despite the variability between the vehicles used to collect the data.
      576
  • Publication
    A drive-by inspection system via vehicle moving force identification
    This paper presents a novel method to carry out monitoring of transport infrastructure such as pavements and bridges through the analysis of vehicle accelerations. An algorithm is developed for the identification of dynamic vehicle-bridge interaction forces using the vehicle response. Moving force identification theory is applied to a vehicle model in order to identify these dynamic forces between the vehicle and the road and/or bridge. A coupled half-car vehicle-bridge interaction model is used in theoretical simulations to test the effectiveness of the approach in identifying the forces. The potential of the method to identify the global bending stiffness of the bridge and to predict the pavement roughness is presented. The method is tested for a range of bridge spans using theoretical simulations and the influences of road roughness and signal noise on the accuracy of the results are investigated.
      1307Scopus© Citations 89