Now showing 1 - 10 of 17
  • Publication
    Shorter-wavelength extreme-UV sources below 10nm
    A next-generation laser-produced plasma system based on rare-earth targets generates strong resonant line emissions at 6.5–6.7nm.
  • Publication
    Interpretation of spectral emission around 20 nm region from tungsten ions observed in fusion device plasmas
    We have measured extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectra from tungsten ions around 20 nm region in plasmas produced in the Large Helical Device at the National Institute for Fusion Science. The spectra after injecting a tungsten pellet into a hydrogen plasma were monitored by a grazing incidence spectrometer. Quasicontinuum spectral feature arising from unresolved transition array (UTA) was observed around 20 nm region in plasmas with temperatures below 1.0 keV. This structure is reasonably considered to be the same one as those observed in another tokamak device or laser produced plasmas under low temperature conditions. Atomic structure calculations have been performed for tungsten ions with open 5p, 5s and 4f subshells (W7+–W27+) to interpret this commonly observed feature around 20 nm. Wavelengths and gA values for these transitions were calculated, and their mean wavelengths and extent were compared with the observations, which suggests that the emission largely arises from n = 5–5 transitions in stages lower than W27+.
      331Scopus© Citations 26
  • Publication
    Measurement of EUV spectra from high Z elements in the Large Helical Device
    Extreme ultra-violet (EUV) emission spectra from highly charged tin, xenon and tungsten ions have been measured in optically thin high-temperature plasmas produced in the Large Helical Device (LHD) at the National Institute for Fusion Science by using a grazing incidence spectrometer and a tracer-encapsulated solid pellet (TESPEL) injector. Quasi-continuous spectral features arising from unresolved transition array (UTA) of open 4d subshell ions were commonly observed for tin, xenon and tungsten around 13.5, 11, and 5 nm, respectively, when edge plasma was cooled enough. The spectral appearance obviously depends on edge electron temperature and atomic number. In the case of intermediate edge temperature, sharp discrete lines from highly charged open 4s or 4p subshell ions are clearly observed for tin and xenon in longer wavelength side of the UTAs but not for tungsten. Assignments of the strong discrete lines have been performed with the help of comparisons with the other experimental data and the theoretical calculations by Cowan code. Contribution of open 4f subshell ions should also be considered to interpret the whole spectra from tungsten ions.
      392Scopus© Citations 2
  • Publication
    Gd plasma source modeling at 6.7 nm for future lithography
    Plasmas containing gadolinium have been proposed as sources for next generation lithography at 6.x nm. To determine the optimum plasma conditions, atomic structure calculations have been performed for Gd11+ to Gd27+ ions which showed that n=4 - n=4 resonance transitions overlap in the 6.5 – 7.0 nm region. Plasma modeling calculations, assuming collisional-radiative equilibrium, predict that the optimum temperature for an optically thin plasma is close to 110 eV and that maximum intensity occurs at 6.76 nm under these conditions. The close agreement observed between simulated and experimental spectra from laser and discharge produced plasmas indicates the validity of our approach.
      614Scopus© Citations 34
  • Publication
    Spectral and temporal behavior of an alkali metal plasma extreme ultraviolet source for surface morphology applications
    We have characterized the emission spectrum and temporal history of a pure potassium plasma in a capillary discharge. Strong broadband emission was observed around 40 nm due to 3s−3p, 3p−3d, and 3d−4f transitions in ions ranging from K2+ to K4+ at a time-integrated electron temperature of about 12 eV. The temporal behavior of this emission strongly follows the recombination phase in the plasma and it was successfully reproduced by a hydrodynamic simulation of the potassium plasma which accounted for atomic processes.
      461Scopus© Citations 3
  • Publication
    Dielectronic recombination of Pd-like gadolinium
    (American Physical Society, 2012-01) ; ; ;
    As research and development of extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) sources at 6.7 nm (which will be based on emission from ionized gadolinium) has already begun, reliable atomic data are required in order to determine the optimum plasma conditions. However, the complexity of the atomic structure means that ab initio level-resolved dielectronic recombination (DR) calculations are currently unavailable for the ions of interest. Here we report the first detailed calculation of the DR rate coefficients for the ground state and first excited states of Pd-like gadolinium. Energy levels, radiative transition probabilities, and autoionization rates of Ag-like gadolinium for [Kr]4d94fnl, [Kr]4p54d104fnl, [Kr]4d95l'nl, and [Kr]4d96l'nl (n ≤ 18) complexes were calculated using the flexible atomic code (FAC). It was found that inclusion of 4p54d104fnl configurations has significant influence on the total DR rate coefficient. The DR rate coefficients obtained here are compared with radiative recombination and three-body recombination coeffcients. The results show that the DR rate coefficient is almost an order of magnitude higher than the coefficients for the other two recombination processes combined at plasma electron temperatures around 110 eV, which suggests that the DR process should be included in theoretical modeling for Pd-like gadolinium in EUVL source plasmas.
    Scopus© Citations 5  478
  • Publication
    Simplified 1-D calculation of 13.5-nm emission in a tin plasma including radiation transport
    (American Institute of Physics, 2009-12-04) ; ; ;
    Many next generation lithography schemes for the semiconductor industry are based on a 13.5-nm tin plasma light source, where hundreds of thousands of 4d-4f, 4p-4d, and 4d-5p transitions from Sn5+–Sn13+ ions overlap to form an unresolved transition array. To aid computation, transition arrays are treated statistically, and Hartree-Fock results are used to calculate radiation transport in the optically thick regime with a 1-D Lagrangian plasma hydrodynamics code. Time-dependent spectra and conversion efficiencies of 2% in-band 13.5-nm emission to laser energy are predicted for a Nd:YAG laser incident on a pure tin slab target as a function of laser power density and pulse duration at normal incidence. Calculated results showed a maximum conversion efficiency of 2.3% for a 10-ns pulse duration at 8.0 x 1010 W/cm2 and are compared to experimental data where available. Evidence for the need to include lateral expansion is presented.
      300Scopus© Citations 9
  • Publication
    Scaling of laser produced plasma UTA emission down to 3 nm for next generation lithography and short wavelength imaging
    An engineering prototype high average power 13.5-nm source has been shipped to semiconductor facilities to permit the commencement of high volume production at a 100 W power level in 2011. In this source, UTA (unresolved transition array) emission of highly ionized Sn is optimized for high conversion efficiency and full recovery of the injected fuel is realized through ion deflection in a magnetic field. By use of a low-density target, satellite emission is suppressed and full ionization attained with short pulse CO2 laser irradiation. The UTA is scalable to shorter wavelengths, and Gd is shown to have similar conversion efficiency to Sn (13.5 nm) at a higher plasma temperature, with a narrow spectrum centered at 6.7 nm, where a 70% reflectivity mirror is anticipated. Optimization of short pulse CO2 laser irradiation is studied, and further extension of the same method is discussed, to realize 100 W average power down to a wavelength of 3 nm
      692Scopus© Citations 9
  • Publication
    Extreme ultraviolet emission spectra of Gd and Tb ions
    (American Institute of Physics, 2010) ;
    Theoretical extreme ultraviolet emission spectra of gadolinium and terbium ions calculated with the Cowan suite of codes and the flexible atomic code (FAC) relativistic code are presented. 4d–4f and 4p–4d transitions give rise to unresolved transition arrays in a range of ions. The effects of configuration interaction are investigated for transitions between singly excited configurations. Optimization of emission at 6.775 nm and 6.515 nm is achieved for Gd and Tb ions, respectively, by consideration of plasma effects. The resulting synthetic spectra are compared with experimental spectra recorded using the laser produced plasma technique.
      704Scopus© Citations 49
  • Publication
    Feasibility study of broad band efficient "water window" source
    We demonstrate a table-top broadband emission water window source based on laser-produced high-Z plasmas. Resonance emission from multiply charged ions merges to produce intense unresolved transition arrays in the 2 to 4 nm region, extending below the carbon K edge (4.37 nm). Arrays resulting from n = 4−4 transitions are overlaid with n = 4−5 emission and shift to shorter wavelength with increasing atomic number. From spectral analysis, a guideline for microscope construction design for single-shot live cell imaging is proposed based on the use of a bismuth plasma source, coupled with multilayer mirror optics.
      668Scopus© Citations 69