Now showing 1 - 10 of 139
  • Publication
    An investigation into the feasibility of an adaptive coaching smartphone application used in conjunction with a novel exercise programme in sedentary individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus
    High levels of physical activity are of major importance in ensuring individuals live a healthy life and age successfully with limited impairments to their health status, function or overall quality of life. However, physical activity continues to be low worldwide, and rates of diseases and conditions associated with sedentary lifestyles are increasing. Furthermore, adherence to exercise prescriptions in individuals whose diseases or conditions are managed more effectively with high levels of physical activity is poor. This paper examines the feasibility of a novel adaptive coaching smartphone application in yielding a high adherence to a specific exercise programme, also designed to improve physical activity habits of previously sedentary individuals with type 2 diabetes. The findings of the current study suggest that combining the progressive short bout exercise programme with a novel adaptive coaching smartphone application is a feasible intervention in sedentary individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The findings also suggest that the combined intervention can yield high adherences, increase overall physical activity levels and improve health related outcomes.
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  • Publication
    Influence of fatigue on turning characteristics in those with chronic ankle instability
    (BMJ Publishing Group, 2015-10-18) ; ;
    Background: Ankle sprains are typically sustained during change of direction tasks and often occur during the latter thirds of both halves of matches. The effects of fatigue on turning kinematic characteristics has not been studied in a chronic ankle instability population.
      334
  • Publication
    Mobile App to Streamline the Development of Wearable Sensor-Based Exercise Biofeedback Systems: System Development and Evaluation
    Background: Biofeedback systems that use inertial measurement units (IMUs) have been shown recently to have the ability toobjectively assess exercise technique. However, there are a number of challenges in developing such systems; vast amounts ofIMU exercise datasets must be collected and manually labeled for each exercise variation, and naturally occurring techniquedeviations may not be well detected. One method of combatting these issues is through the development of personalized exercisetechnique classifiers.Objective: We aimed to create a tablet app for physiotherapists and personal trainers that would automate the development ofpersonalized multiple and single IMU-based exercise biofeedback systems for their clients. We also sought to complete apreliminary investigation of the accuracy of such individualized systems in a real-world evaluation.Methods: A tablet app was developed that automates the key steps in exercise technique classifier creation through synchronizingvideo and IMU data collection, automatic signal processing, data segmentation, data labeling of segmented videos by an exerciseprofessional, automatic feature computation, and classifier creation. Using a personalized single IMU-based classification system,15 volunteers (12 males, 3 females, age: 23.8 [standard deviation, SD 1.8] years, height: 1.79 [SD 0.07] m, body mass: 78.4 [SD9.6] kg) then completed 4 lower limb compound exercises. The real-world accuracy of the systems was evaluated.Results: The tablet app successfully automated the process of creating individualized exercise biofeedback systems. Thepersonalized systems achieved 89.50% (1074/1200) accuracy, with 90.00% (540/600) sensitivity and 89.00% (534/600) specificityfor assessing aberrant and acceptable technique with a single IMU positioned on the left thigh.Conclusions: A tablet app was developed that automates the process required to create a personalized exercise techniqueclassification system. This tool can be applied to any cyclical, repetitive exercise. The personalized classification model displayedexcellent system accuracy even when assessing acute deviations in compound exercises with a single IMU.
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  • Publication
    Acute ankle sprain injury alters kinematic and centre of pressure measures of postural control during single limb stance
    Background: Upright single-limb stance (SLS) is maintained via integration of visual, vestibular and somatosensory afferents. The presence of redundancies between these afferents allows the sensorimotor system to simplify a specific task within a number of strategies. Musculoskeletal injury challenges the somatosensory system to reweight distorted sensory afferents. No current investigation has supplemented kinetic analysis of eyes-open and eyes-closed SLS tasks with a kinematic profile of lower limb postural orientation in an acute lateral ankle sprain (LAS) group to assess the adaptive capacity of the sensorimotor system to injury. Objective: To compare centre of pressure (COP) and lower limb postural orientation characteristics of participants with acute LAS to non-injured participants during a SLS task. Design Cross-sectional: Setting University biomechanics laboratory. Participants: 66 participants with acute LAS completed a task of eyes-open SLS on their injured and non-injured limbs (task 1). 23 of these participants successfully completed the SLS task with their eyes closed (task 2). A non-injured control group of nineteen participants completed task 1, with 16 completing task 2. Main outcome measures: 3D kinematics of the hip, knee and ankle joints as well as associated fractal dimension (FD) of the COP path. Results: Between trial analyses of groups revealed significant differences in lower limb kinematics and FD of the COP path for task 2. Post-hoc testing revealed that non-injured control group bilaterally assumed a position of greater hip flexion compared to LAS participants (injured limb=7.41±6.1◦ vs 1.44±4.8◦; non-injured limb=9.59±8.5◦ vs 2.16±5.6◦), with a corollary of greater FD of the COP path (injured limb=1.39±0.16 vs 1.25±0.14; non-injured limb=1.37±0.21 vs 1.23±0.14). Conclusion: Acute LAS causes bilateral impairment in postural control strategies.
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  • Publication
    The effects of an electrical muscle stimulation training intervention on physiological measures in a spinal cord injury male
    Participation in aerobic exercise activity is considered necessary for individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) to reduce the potential development of common co-morbidities associated with SCI such as cardiovascular (CV) disease, reduced bone mineral density (BMD), increases in body fat and decreases in lean body mass. Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) has been advocated as offering a feasible exercise regime to SCI individuals. FES studies have reported improvements in BMD, CV fitness, body composition (BC) and quality of life (QOL), however its application is limited by its effect on muscle fatigue, as well as the need for specialist equipment and training. Recently, researchers have developed a new type of electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) system, which appears to overcome the above issues. This system has improved heart rate (HR) and peak muscle oxygen consumption (VO2) within Chronic Heart Failure (CHF) patients, obese and sedentary adults [3,4]. An SCI population may benefit from a similar intervention and justifies further research into the effects this EMS system may have on SCI.
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  • Publication
    An investigation into the acute effects of electrical muscle stimulation on cardiopulmonary function in a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patient - a pilot case study
    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients commonly find it difficult to participate in conventional aerobic exercise training owing to limited cardiopulmonary reserve, excessive dyspnoea and muscle fatigue. Recent studies have shown that significant improvements in oxygen consumption can be gained post 6-week electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) training. Low frequency currents elicit a sustained and significant aerobic response and may be appropriate for COPD patients, who cannot exercise in a conventional manner. A recent study compared the acute metabolic response among COPD patients during resistance training and EMS, using a tetanic frequency of 75 Hertz (Hz), however no investigations have reported on the acute effects of EMS on cardiopulmonary function in a COPD population, using low frequency stimulation current.
      317
  • Publication
    Objective quantification of a clinical dynamic balance assessment
    Objective: To investigate whether addition of inertial sensor data can provide additional insight into the nature of postural stability deficits during a clinical dynamic balance assessment, with a view to enhancing accuracy of post-concussion monitoring protocols. Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Setting: University performance laboratory. Participants: Fifteen physically active adults (age 234 years, height 1758 cm, weight 67.58 kg). Interventions: An inertial measurement unit (IMU) was mounted at the level of the 4th lumbar vertebra. Subjects completed repeated Y-Balance tests (YBT) 10 minutes and immediately prior to a modified 60 second Wingate anaerobic fatiguing test. Post-fatigue YBTs were completed immediately following the test, and at 10 and 20 minutes.Outcome measures: Normalised YBT reach distances, and IMU derived RMS acceleration, velocity and angular velocity. Main results: Prior to the fatiguing intervention, participants demonstrated excellent stability/reliability for all reach directions (Intra-class correlation coefficient 0.872-0.994). Significantly lower reach distances (P<0.05) were observed immediately post-fatigue for the postero-medial and postero-lateral, but not anterior reach direction. Observed deficits returned to pre-fatigue levels by 10 minutes. However, IMU derived measures of postural stability remained significantly reduced (P<0.05) for up to 20 minute post-fatigue. Conclusions: These results demonstrate the ability of both traditional YBT reach distances and inertial sensor data to detect centrally driven postural stability deficits. However, the inertial sensor provided a greater degree of granularity in characterising the nature of these postural stability deficits. This suggests that addition of IMUs to clinical balance measurement tests/protocols may better detect deficits associated with concussion.
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  • Publication
    A comparison of the movement patterns of specific rugby union movements on both natural turf and artificial turf
    A limitation of sports kinematic studies is that they cannot fully represent in-situ play conditions for fast dynamic sports. This paper describes the use of new inertial sensor measurement technology (ODonovan et al., 2009) to analyse player motions in the field under game-like conditions in order to quantify the impact of different playing surfaces on movement patterns. The wireless sensor system used in this study (Shimmer 3, Shimmer Research, Ireland) is a lightweight (50x25x12.5mm3), wearable, low-power consumption inertial measurement unit that contains a tri-axial accelerometer, gyroscope, and magnetometer. Sensor data can be used to derive a range of spatiotemporal and kinematic variables to quantify performance during gait and other functional activities. In our research we are using these sensors as a means to characterise movement during a running activity. The motivation for this study has been to compare movement profiles and strategies of rugby players performing game related tasks on natural turf surfaces and on synthetic surfaces, to enable a better understanding of the impact of different playing surfaces on movement and associated forces and stresses exerted on the body. This is important as there is a growing trend towards use of synthetic surfaces in rugby union and there have been anecdotal reports of injuries that are perceived to be related to the playing surface. In this paper we present preliminary movement data acquired from players performing a 10m sprint test on natural and synthetic surfaces and describe our methods of data extraction and subsequent data processing.
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  • Publication
    An investigation into the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation exercise in type 2 diabetes : a case study
    Exercise is a vital component in the management and prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Both the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and the American Diabetes Association (ADA) advocate exercise as a treatment method for T2D. However, given the benefits of engaging in physical activity, many T2D patients are often unable to partake in physical activity secondary to complications of their diabetes or other musculoskeletal problems. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) exercise is a likely alternative for diabetic individuals who face barriers to physical activity. NMES has received much attention in recent years as a new form of inducing exercise. The ability of NMES to stimulate innervated muscle has resulted in it’s use as a training tool for individuals without neuromuscular pathology. Banerjee and colleagues showed that prolonged NMES exercise in sedentary adults resulted in significant improvements in maximal aerobic capacity, muscle strength and capacity for physical activity. The aim of this case study was to investigate the use of NMES exercise in T2D.
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  • Publication
    The use of SHIMMER to detect stride time in running gait
    Wireless sensing solutions that provide for accurate long term monitoring of walking and running stride characteristics in a real world environment would be an excellent tool for biomechanics researchers. SHIMMER™ is a small, wireless, low-power inertial sensor with a large storage capacity that facilitates wearable wireless sensing in both connected and disconnected modes. It is a very flexible, multi-sensing device, consisting of a tri-axial accelerometer, with options of add-on daughter boards such as tri-axial gyropscopes, or ECG/EMG sensors. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of the SHIMMER wireless sensor platform for the determination of heel-strike and stride times, across a range of speeds, to a marker-based motion capture system (CODA, Charnwood Dynamics, UK). Previous studies have shown that the SHIMMER sensor and associated algorithms can successfully calculate these parameters in slow to fast walking speeds, but it has not yet been applied to running.
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