Now showing 1 - 10 of 134
  • Publication
    Acceleration and rotation rate profile comparison from inertial sensors mounted on the service arm between tennis players of different skill level
    Biomechanical performance is an important factor for developing tennis players. The tennis serve happens so quickly that it can be difficult for even the trained eye of an experienced coach to identify the miniscule movement differences that can make the difference between being a successful player and not. Traditionally, biomechanical information is captured with an optical-marker system, which is expensive and requires a specialized team to operate (Tanabe & Ito, 2007). Advances in wearable sensor technology means that it might one day be possible to measure kinematics from sensors embedded in athletic clothing. Currently, there are inertial sensors which can be used in training, but are too cumbersome for an athlete to wear in a game situation. The initial step is to use these sensors to determine what type of information it is possible to get from inertial sensors on the athlete, which is the purpose of this study.
  • Publication
    Connected Health in Europe: Where are we today?
    This report, which has grown out of an ENJECT survey of 19 European countries, examines the situation of Connected Health in Europe today. It focuses on creating a clear understanding of the current and developing presence of Connected Health throughout European healthcare systems under five headings: The Policy Environment, Education, Business and Health Models, Interoperability, and The Person.
  • Publication
    Validation of a functional fatigue protocol
    Neuromuscular fatigue is believed to be a contributing factor to injury in athletic situations. To examine this idea, it is necessary to establish functional fatigue models that are representative of the type of physical activity that takes place in athletic training and competition. The purpose of this study was to validate a novel functional fatigue protocol (FFP) that reproduces the demands of a sporting situation i.e. accelerating and decelerating the body, changing direction, jumping, landing, and metabolic stress.
  • Publication
    Evaluating Performance of the Lunge Exercise with Multiple and Individual Inertial Measurement Units
    The lunge is an important component of lower limb rehabilitation, strengthening and injury risk screening. Completing the movement incorrectly alters muscle activation and increases stress on knee, hip and ankle joints. This study sought to investigate whether IMUs are capable of discriminating between correct and incorrect performance of the lunge. Eighty volunteers (57 males, 23 females, age: 24.68± 4.91 years, height: 1.75± 0.094m, body mass: 76.01±13.29kg) were fitted with five IMUs positioned on the lumbar spine, thighs and shanks. They then performed the lunge exercise with correct form and 11 specific deviations from acceptable form. Features were extracted from the labelled sensor data and used to train and evaluate random-forests classifiers. The system achieved 83% accuracy, 62% sensitivity and 90% specificity in binary classification with a single sensor placed on the right thigh and 90% accuracy, 80% sensitivity and 92% specificity using five IMUs. This multi-sensor set up can detect specific deviations with 70% accuracy. These results indicate that a single IMU has the potential to differentiate between correct and incorrect lunge form and using multiple IMUs adds the possibility of identifying specific deviations a user is making when completing the lunge.
  • Publication
    An interactive exercise biofeedback Android application utilizing a single inertial measurement unit to support joint replacement rehabilitation
    Boomerang Ortho is an Android application developed with the aim to better support patients in their exercise rehabilitation program following total knee replacement. The use of a single inertial measurement unit (IMU) attached to the lower leg allows for classification of exercise technique, real-time biofeedback, and both self and remote monitoring of patient data. The prototype application for demonstration is currently undergoing pilot testing prior to an assessment of impact on clinical outcome.
  • Publication
    Mobile App to Streamline the Development of Wearable Sensor-Based Exercise Biofeedback Systems: System Development and Evaluation
    Background: Biofeedback systems that use inertial measurement units (IMUs) have been shown recently to have the ability toobjectively assess exercise technique. However, there are a number of challenges in developing such systems; vast amounts ofIMU exercise datasets must be collected and manually labeled for each exercise variation, and naturally occurring techniquedeviations may not be well detected. One method of combatting these issues is through the development of personalized exercisetechnique classifiers.Objective: We aimed to create a tablet app for physiotherapists and personal trainers that would automate the development ofpersonalized multiple and single IMU-based exercise biofeedback systems for their clients. We also sought to complete apreliminary investigation of the accuracy of such individualized systems in a real-world evaluation.Methods: A tablet app was developed that automates the key steps in exercise technique classifier creation through synchronizingvideo and IMU data collection, automatic signal processing, data segmentation, data labeling of segmented videos by an exerciseprofessional, automatic feature computation, and classifier creation. Using a personalized single IMU-based classification system,15 volunteers (12 males, 3 females, age: 23.8 [standard deviation, SD 1.8] years, height: 1.79 [SD 0.07] m, body mass: 78.4 [SD9.6] kg) then completed 4 lower limb compound exercises. The real-world accuracy of the systems was evaluated.Results: The tablet app successfully automated the process of creating individualized exercise biofeedback systems. Thepersonalized systems achieved 89.50% (1074/1200) accuracy, with 90.00% (540/600) sensitivity and 89.00% (534/600) specificityfor assessing aberrant and acceptable technique with a single IMU positioned on the left thigh.Conclusions: A tablet app was developed that automates the process required to create a personalized exercise techniqueclassification system. This tool can be applied to any cyclical, repetitive exercise. The personalized classification model displayedexcellent system accuracy even when assessing acute deviations in compound exercises with a single IMU.
  • Publication
    Acute ankle sprain injury alters kinematic and centre of pressure measures of postural control during single limb stance
    Background: Upright single-limb stance (SLS) is maintained via integration of visual, vestibular and somatosensory afferents. The presence of redundancies between these afferents allows the sensorimotor system to simplify a specific task within a number of strategies. Musculoskeletal injury challenges the somatosensory system to reweight distorted sensory afferents. No current investigation has supplemented kinetic analysis of eyes-open and eyes-closed SLS tasks with a kinematic profile of lower limb postural orientation in an acute lateral ankle sprain (LAS) group to assess the adaptive capacity of the sensorimotor system to injury. Objective: To compare centre of pressure (COP) and lower limb postural orientation characteristics of participants with acute LAS to non-injured participants during a SLS task. Design Cross-sectional: Setting University biomechanics laboratory. Participants: 66 participants with acute LAS completed a task of eyes-open SLS on their injured and non-injured limbs (task 1). 23 of these participants successfully completed the SLS task with their eyes closed (task 2). A non-injured control group of nineteen participants completed task 1, with 16 completing task 2. Main outcome measures: 3D kinematics of the hip, knee and ankle joints as well as associated fractal dimension (FD) of the COP path. Results: Between trial analyses of groups revealed significant differences in lower limb kinematics and FD of the COP path for task 2. Post-hoc testing revealed that non-injured control group bilaterally assumed a position of greater hip flexion compared to LAS participants (injured limb=7.41±6.1◦ vs 1.44±4.8◦; non-injured limb=9.59±8.5◦ vs 2.16±5.6◦), with a corollary of greater FD of the COP path (injured limb=1.39±0.16 vs 1.25±0.14; non-injured limb=1.37±0.21 vs 1.23±0.14). Conclusion: Acute LAS causes bilateral impairment in postural control strategies.
  • Publication
    An investigation into the effects of electrical muscle stimulation training in type 2 diabetes mellitus : a case study
    Exercise is a vital component in the management and prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Both the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and the American Diabetes Association (ADA) advocate exercise as a treatment method for T2DM. However, given the benefits of engaging in physical activity, many T2DM patients are often unable to partake in physical activity secondary to complications of their diabetes or other musculoskeletal problems. Electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) exercise is a likely alternative for diabetic individuals who face barriers to physical activity. EMS has received much attention in recent years as a new form of inducing exercise. Banerjee and colleagues showed that prolonged EMS exercise in sedentary adults resulted in significant improvements in maximal aerobic capacity, muscle strength and capacity for physical activity.
  • Publication
    Vectors and drivers of connected health in Europe: a foundation for integrated care
    Coordinated, integrated care requires connected 'inputs, delivery, management and organization of services related to diagnosis, treatment, care, rehabilitation and health promotion' (Grone & Barbero, 2002). Connected health (CH) offers a key building block as a 'paradigm shift, looking after the individual and community health in a process that speaks to the health journey of the person, through the entire lifespan, leveraging a variety of technologies to do so”' (ENJECT, 2016). However, CH is failing to reach its full potential – and therefore failing in its contribution to the realization of integrated care. We conducted a multi-disciplinary literature review across business, technology and healthcare journals, triangulated with a survey of CH experts from academia, industry and clinical settings representing 19 European countries (ENJECT, COST Action TD1405).
  • Publication
    The use of SHIMMER to detect stride time in running gait
    Wireless sensing solutions that provide for accurate long term monitoring of walking and running stride characteristics in a real world environment would be an excellent tool for biomechanics researchers. SHIMMER™ is a small, wireless, low-power inertial sensor with a large storage capacity that facilitates wearable wireless sensing in both connected and disconnected modes. It is a very flexible, multi-sensing device, consisting of a tri-axial accelerometer, with options of add-on daughter boards such as tri-axial gyropscopes, or ECG/EMG sensors. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of the SHIMMER wireless sensor platform for the determination of heel-strike and stride times, across a range of speeds, to a marker-based motion capture system (CODA, Charnwood Dynamics, UK). Previous studies have shown that the SHIMMER sensor and associated algorithms can successfully calculate these parameters in slow to fast walking speeds, but it has not yet been applied to running.