Now showing 1 - 5 of 5
  • Publication
    A convenient chemical-microbial method for developing fluorinated pharmaceuticals
    A significant proportion of pharmaceuticals are fluorinated and selecting the site of fluorine incorporation can be an important beneficial part a drug development process. Here we describe initial experiments aimed at the development of a general method of selecting optimum sites on pro - drug molecules for fluorination, so that metabolic stability may be improved. Several model biphenyl derivatives were transformed by the fungus Cunninghamella elegans and the bacterium Streptomyces griseus, both of which contain cytochromes P450 that mimic oxidation processes in vivo, so that the site of oxidation could be determined. Subsequently, fluorinated biphenyl derivatives were synthesised using appropriate Suzuki - Miyaura coupling reactions, positioning the fluorine atom at the pre - determined site of microbial oxidation; the fluorinated biphenyl derivatives were incubated with the microorganisms and the degree of oxidation assessed. Biphenyl-4-carboxylic acid was transformed completely to 4' - hydroxybiphenyl - 4 - carboxylic acid by C. elegans but, in contrast, the 4' fluoro - analogue remained untransformed exemplifying the microbial oxidation – chemical fluorination concept. 2' - Fluoro-and 3' - fluoro - biphenyl - 4 - carboxylic acid were also transformed, but more slowly than the non - fluorinated biphenyl carboxylic acid derivative. Thus, it is possible to design compounds in an iterative fashion with a longer metabolic half - life by identifying the sites that are most easily oxidised by in vitro methods and subsequent fluorination without recourse to extensive animal studies.
      441Scopus© Citations 39
  • Publication
    Production of the Novel Lipopeptide Antibiotic Trifluorosurfactin via Precursor-Directed Biosynthesis
    Incorporation of fluorine into antibiotics can moderate their biological activity, lipophilicity and metabolic stability. The introduction of fluorine into an antimicrobial lipopeptide produced by Bacillus sp. CS93 via precursor-directed biosynthesis is described. The lipopeptide surfactin is synthesised non-ribosomally by various Bacillus species and is known for its biological activity. Administering 4,4,4-trifluoro-dl-valine to cultures of Bacillus sp. CS93 results in the formation of trifluorosurfactin in quantities sufficient for detection by LC–MS/MS. 19F NMR analysis of the culture supernatant revealed that the bulk of the fluorinated amino acid was transformed and thus was unavailable for incorporation into surfactin. Detection of ammonia, and MS analysis indicated that the transformation proceeds with deamination and reduction of the keto acid, yielding 4,4,4-trifluoro-2-hydroxy-3-methylbutanoic acid.
    Scopus© Citations 9  563
  • Publication
    Novel fluorinated lipopeptides from Bacillus sp. CS93 via precursor-directed biosynthesis
    While attempting to improve production of fluoro-iturin A in Bacillus sp. CS93 new mono- and di-fluorinated fengycins were detected in culture supernatants by 19F NMR and tandem mass spectrometry, after incubation of the bacterium with 3-fluoro-l-tyrosine. The fluorinated amino acid was presumably incorporated in place of one or both of the tyrosyl residues in fengycin. Investigations to generate additional new fluorinated derivatives were undertaken using commercially available fluorinated phenylalanines and 2-fluoro- and 2,3-difluoro-tyrosine that were synthesised by Negishi cross-coupling of iodoalanine and fluorinated bromo-phenols. The anti-fungal activity of the fluorinated lipopeptides was assayed against Trichophyton rubrum and found to be similar to that of the non-fluorinated metabolites.
      395Scopus© Citations 16
  • Publication
    Biodegradation of pentafluorosulfanyl-substituted aminophenol in Pseudomonas spp.
    The pentafluorosulfanyl (SF5–) substituent conveys properties that are beneficial to drugs and agrochemicals. As synthetic methodologies improve the number of compounds containing this group will expand and these chemicals may be viewed as emerging pollutants. As many microorganisms can degrade aromatic xenobiotics, we investigated the catabolism of SF5-substituted aminophenols by bacteria and found that some Pseudomonas spp. can utilise these compounds as sole carbon and energy sources. GC–MS analysis of the culture supernatants from cultures grown in 5-(pentafluorosulfanyl) 2-aminophenol demonstrated the presence of the N-acetylated derivative of the starting substrate and 4-(pentafluorosulfanyl)catechol. Biotransformation experiments with re-suspended cells were also conducted and fluorine-19 NMR analyses of the organic extract and aqueous fraction from suspended cell experiments revealed new resonances of SF5-substituted intermediates. Supplementation of suspended cell cultures with yeast extract dramatically improved the degradation of the substrate as well as the release of fluoride ion. 4-(Pentafluorosulfanyl)catechol was shown to be a shunt metabolite and toxic to some of the bacteria. This is the first study to demonstrate that microorganisms can biodegrade SF5-substituted aromatic compounds releasing fluoride ion, and biotransform them generating a toxic metabolite.
    Scopus© Citations 16  332
  • Publication
    Microbial biotransformation of aryl sulfanylpentafluorides
    We report, for the first time, the biotransformation of potential pollutants bearing the pentafluorosulfanyl (SF5-) functional group in a fungus and bacteria. Cunninghamella elegans transformed p-methoxy phenyl SF5 via demethylation; Pseudomonas knackmussii and P. pseudoalcaligenes KF707 transformed amino-, hydroxyamino- and diamino- substituted phenyl SF5, forming the N-acetylated derivatives as the main product. Cell-free extract of Streptomyces griseus transformed 4-amino-3-hydroxy-phenyl SF5 to the N-acetylated derivative in the presence of acetyl CoA, confirming that an N-acetyltransferase is responsible for the bacterial biotransformations. Approximately 25 % of drugs and 30 % of agrochemicals contain fluorine, and the trifluoromethyl group is a prominent feature of many of these since it improves lipophilicity and stability. The pentafluorosulfanyl substituent is seen as an improvement on the trifluoromethyl group and research efforts are underway to develop synthetic methods to incorporate this moiety into biologically active compounds. It is important to determine the potential environmental impact of these compounds, including the potential biotransformation reactions that may occur when they are exposed to microorganisms.
    Scopus© Citations 10  387