Now showing 1 - 4 of 4
  • Publication
    Sources of nitrogen and phosphorus emissions to Irish rivers and coastal waters: Estimates from a nutrient load apportionment framework
    More than half of surface water bodies in Europe are at less than good ecological status according to Water Framework Directive assessments, and diffuse pollution from agriculture remains a major, but not the only, cause of this poor performance. Agri-environmental policy and land management practices have, in many areas, reduced nutrient emissions to water. However, additional measures may be required in Ireland to further decouple the relationship between agricultural productivity and emissions to water, which is of vital importance given on-going agricultural intensification. The Source Load Apportionment Model (SLAM) framework characterises sources of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) emissions to water at a range of scales from sub-catchment to national. The SLAM synthesises land use and physical characteristics to predict emissions from point (wastewater, industry discharges and septic tank systems) and diffuse sources (agriculture, forestry, etc.). The predicted annual nutrient emissions were assessed against monitoring data for 16 major river catchments covering 50% of the area of Ireland. At national scale, results indicate that total average annual emissions to surface water in Ireland are over 2700 t yr- 1 of P and 82,000 t yr- 1 of N. The proportional contributions from individual sources show that the main sources of P are from municipal wastewater treatment plants and agriculture, with wide variations across the country related to local anthropogenic pressures and the hydrogeological setting. Agriculture is the main source of N emissions to water across all regions of Ireland. These policy-relevant results synthesised large amounts of information in order to identify the dominant sources of nutrients at regional and local scales, contributing to the national nutrient risk assessment of Irish water bodies
      584Scopus© Citations 92
  • Publication
    Nutrient Load Apportionment to Support the Identification of Appropriate Water Framework Directive Measures
    A model for predicting the sources of nutrient loads (phosphorus and nitrogen) to water has been developed to support Water Framework Directive (WFD) implementation. This model integrates catchment data and pressure information to enable characterisation of Source-Pathway-Receptor relationships. The Source Load Apportionment Model (SLAM) is a flexible framework for incorporating national data and research to quantify nutrient losses from both point discharges (urban wastewater, industry and septic tank systems) and diffuse sources (pasture, arable, forestry, peatlands etc.). Hydrogeological controls have a strong impact on nutrient fluxes, particularly in agricultural catchments, and have been incorporated into the diffuse agricultural model, the Catchment Characterisation Tool (CCT). This paper describes the SLAM framework, including the CCT, along with the data inputs and assumptions. Results for the Suir catchment matched the measured loads of nitrogen and phosphorus well, and showed that pasture is the dominant source of nitrogen across all sub-catchments. The main sources of phosphorus in sub-catchments varied between diffuse agriculture, wastewater and industrial discharges. A relatively small proportion (13%) of the Suir catchment area requires a reduction in phosphorus emissions to achieve Good Status. In these areas, model results can be used in conjunction with knowledge from local authorities and investigative assessments gathered through the WFD characterisation process to identify significant pressures that contribute excessive nutrient loads. An example of assessing load reduction scenarios is presented to illustrate how modelling can support catchment scientists and managers in identifying appropriate measures. 
      862Scopus© Citations 10
  • Publication
    What are the main sources of nutrient inputs to Ireland's aquatic environment?
    Where rivers and lakes are impacted by excess nutrients, we need to understand the sources of those nutrients before mitigation measures can be selected. In these areas, modelling can be used in conjunction with knowledge from local authorities and information gained from investigative assessments to identify significant pressures that contribute excessive nutrients to surface waters. Where surface waters are impacted by excess nutrients, understanding the sources of those nutrients is key to the development of effective, targeted mitigation measures. In Ireland, nutrient emissions are the main reason that surface waters are not achieving the required Good Status, as defined by the Water Framework Directive (WFD). A model has been developed in order to predict the sources of nutrients contributing to these emissions and to assess future pressures and the likely effectiveness of targeted mitigation scenarios. This Source Load Apportionment Model (SLAM) supports catchment managers by providing scientifically robust evidence to back-up decision-making in relation to reducing nutrient pollution. The SLAM is a source-oriented model that calculates the nitrogen and phosphorus exported from each sector (e.g. pasture, forestry, wastewater discharges) that contribute to nutrient loads in a river. Model output is presented as maps and tables showing the proportions of nutrient emissions to water attributed to each sector in each sub-catchment. The EPA has incorporated these model results into the multiple lines of evidence used for the WFD characterisation process for Irish catchments. 
  • Publication
    CCT: A simple prioritisation tool for identifying critical source areas for managing waterborne pollutants
    Catchment characterisation integrates an understanding of the physical characteristics, sources, pathways and pressures in a catchment, and provides a scientific basis for evaluation of mitigation measures required by the EU Water Framework Directive. In Ireland, the Catchment Characterisation Tool (CCT) has been developed to assess the potential risk posed by nitrate and phosphate from diffuse agricultural sources to surface and groundwater receptors, and to delineate critical source areas in Irish sub-catchments (typically from 10 – 200 km2 in size) as a means of facilitating the targeting of mitigation measures. The CCT for nitrate, which is presented in this paper, is a steady-state model based on annual average nitrate loadings transported from their land sources along near surface and subsurface pathways to each receptor. The GIS-based model links spatial datasets, such as land-use, soil and geological properties with transport and delivery factors derived from field and literature data. The model can distinguish between the contaminant loads transported through each of the major hydrological pathways. The CCT calculates the nitrate loading to surface waters following the source-pathway-receptor methodology, and results are displayed in pollution impact potential maps. A key issue with such export models is how they can be validated. This paper describes the validation methodology which compared a national dataset of measured nitrate concentrations in Irish water bodies with values predicted by the CCT. More detailed comparisonswith local test catchments that are more intensively monitored showed satisfactory correlation between the CCT predictions and measured concentrations. This paper thus shows both the potential of the CCT approach, the likely range of the uncertainty to be expected, and the issues that arise from its validation.