Now showing 1 - 3 of 3
  • Publication
    Open-source Web Portal for Managing Self-reported Data and Real-world Data Donation in Diabetes Research: Platform Feasibility Study
    Background: People with diabetes and their support networks have developed open-source automated insulin delivery systems to help manage their diabetes therapy, as well as to improve their quality of life and glycemic outcomes. Under the hashtag #WeAreNotWaiting, a wealth of knowledge and real-world data have been generated by users of these systems but have been left largely untapped by research; opportunities for such multimodal studies remain open. Objective: We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of several aspects of open-source automated insulin delivery systems including challenges related to data management and security across multiple disparate web-based platforms and challenges related to implementing follow-up studies. Methods: We developed a mixed methods study to collect questionnaire responses and anonymized diabetes data donated by participants-which included adults and children with diabetes and their partners or caregivers recruited through multiple diabetes online communities. We managed both front-end participant interactions and back-end data management with our web portal (called the Gateway). Participant questionnaire data from electronic data capture (REDCap) and personal device data aggregation (Open Humans) platforms were pseudonymously and securely linked and stored within a custom-built database that used both open-source and commercial software. Participants were later given the option to include their health care providers in the study to validate their questionnaire responses; the database architecture was designed specifically with this kind of extensibility in mind. Results: Of 1052 visitors to the study landing page, 930 participated and completed at least one questionnaire. After the implementation of health care professional validation of self-reported clinical outcomes to the study, an additional 164 individuals visited the landing page, with 142 completing at least one questionnaire. Of the optional study elements, 7 participant-health care professional dyads participated in the survey, and 97 participants who completed the survey donated their anonymized medical device data. Conclusions: The platform was accessible to participants while maintaining compliance with data regulations. The Gateway formalized a system of automated data matching between multiple data sets, which was a major benefit to researchers. Scalability of the platform was demonstrated with the later addition of self-reported data validation. This study demonstrated the feasibility of custom software solutions in addressing complex study designs. The Gateway portal code has been made available open-source and can be leveraged by other research groups.
      52Scopus© Citations 2
  • Publication
    Variability of Glycemic Outcomes and Insulin Requirements Throughout the Menstrual Cycle: A Qualitative Study on Women With Type 1 Diabetes Using an Open-Source Automated Insulin Delivery System
    Background: The impact of hormone dynamics throughout the menstrual cycle on insulin sensitivity represents a currently under-researched area. Despite therapeutic and technological advances, self-managing insulin therapy remains challenging for women with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Methods: To investigate perceived changes in glycemic levels and insulin requirements throughout the menstrual cycle and different phases of life, we performed semi-structured interviews with 12 women with T1D who are using personalized open-source automated insulin delivery (AID) systems. Transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis with an inductive, hypothesis-generating approach. Results: Participants reported significant differences between the follicular phase, ovulation, and luteal phase of the menstrual cycle and also during puberty, pregnancy, and menopause. All participants reported increased comfort and safety since using AID, but were still required to manually adjust their therapy according to their cycle. A lack of information and awareness and limited guidance by health care providers were frequently mentioned. Although individual adjustment strategies exist, achieving optimum outcomes was still perceived as challenging. Conclusions: This study highlights that scientific evidence, therapeutic options, and professional guidance on female health-related aspects in T1D are insufficient to date. Further efforts are required to better inform people with T1D, as well as for health care professionals, researchers, medical device manufacturers, and regulatory bodies to better address female health needs in therapeutic advances.
      87Scopus© Citations 4
  • Publication
    Costs and underuse of insulin and diabetes supplies: Findings from the 2020 T1 International cross-sectional web-based survey
    Aims: To investigate self-reported out-of-pocket expenses (OoPE) associated with insulin and diabetes supplies for people living with type 1 diabetes (T1D) worldwide. Methods: A web-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted from August to December 2020. The analysis included comparisons between responses from countries with no, partial, and full healthcare coverage. Results: 1,066 participants from 64 countries took part in the study. ~25% of respondents reported having underused insulin at least once within the last year due to perceived cost. A significant correlation was observed between OoPEs and reported household income for respondents with partial healthcare coverage. 63.2% of participants reported disruption of insulin supplies and 25.3% reported an increase of prices related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusions: This study confirms previous reports of ~25% of people in the United States with T1D using less insulin and/or fewer supplies at least once in the last year due to cost, a trend associated with the extent of healthcare coverage. Similar trends were observed in some middle/low income countries. Moreover, patients reported an increase in insulin prices and disruption of supplies during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study highlights the importance of self-reported OoPEs and its association with underuse/rationing of insulin.
      140Scopus© Citations 13