Now showing 1 - 10 of 13
  • Publication
    The bogs of Ireland: an introduction to the natural, cultural and industrial heritage of Irish peatlands
    (University College Dublin. Environmental Institute, 2008) ; ; ;
    The bogs were the last wilderness to take shape in the Irish landscape in the wake of the Ice Age. As they expanded, they forced back the tide of farming, and then kept the fields at bay along their inhospitable frontiers. During the first farming millennia little could be done to reclaim these barren, wet deserts and replace them with friendly fields as had been done with most of the forest wilderness. Only rarely were the bogs resorted to – to bury butter, to take a short cut, to hide the bodies of the murdered. This outlook on the bog changed for two related reasons. One was the disappearance of woodland, and the increasing scarcity of wood as a domestic fuel; the second was the increasing population. Since the publication of The Bogs of Ireland in 1996, research on Irish peatlands has been concentrated on two main areas: carbon sequestration and a re-evaluation of the prospects for afforestation of the cutaway. Apart from some minor corrections, the text of this digital version is essentially that of the original printed edition of 1996, with the exception of Chapters 5, 7 and 16, which have been expanded and rewritten to take account of recent and ongoing research and developments in these two areas.
      1393
  • Publication
    Modeling relevant factors and covariates of carbon stock changes in peatlands using a hierarchical linear mixed modeling approach
    While peatlands constitute the largest soil carbon stock in Ireland with 75% of soil carbon stored in an area covering an estimated 20% of the land surface, carbon stocks of peatlands are affected by past and present disturbances related to various land uses. Afforestation, grazing and peat extraction for energy and horticultural use often are major drivers of peatland soil degradation. A comparative assessment of the impact of land disturbance on peatland soil carbon stocks on a national scale has been lacking so far. Current research, funded by the Irish Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), addresses this issue with the goal to fill various gaps related to mapping and modeling changes of soil carbon stock in Irish peatlands. Data from the first nationwide peatland survey forms the basis for this study, in which the influence of different factors and covariates on soil carbon distribution in peatlands is examined. After data exploratory analysis, a mixed linear modeling approach is tested for its suitability to explain peatland soil carbon distribution within the Republic of Ireland. Parameters are identified which are responsible for changes across the country. In addition, model performance to map peat soil carbon stock within a three-dimensional space is evaluated.
      214
  • Publication
    Insights into CO2 simulations from the Irish Blackwater peatland using ECOSSE model
    Non-degraded peatlands are known to be important carbon sink; however, if they are exposed to anthropogenic changes they can act as carbon source. This study forms a part of the larger AUGER project (http://www.ucd.ie/auger). It uses the ECOSSE process-based model to predict CO2 emissions [heterotrophic respiration (Rh)] associated with different peatland management (Smith et al., 2010). The work aims to provide preliminary insights into CO2 modelling procedures for drained and rewetted sites from Blackwater, the former Irish raised bog. After drainage in 1950’s (due to peat-extraction) and cessation of draining in 1999, the landscape developed drained ‘Bare Peat’ (BP), and rewetted ‘Reeds’ (R) and ‘Sedges’ (S) sites (Renou-Wilson et al., 2019). Modelling of CO2 from these sites was done using ECOSSE-v.6.2b model (‘site-specific’ mode) with water-table (WT) module (Smith et al., 2010), and default peatland vegetation parameters. The other model-input parameters (including soil respiration, WT and other soil parameters) were obtained from measurements reported in Renou-Wilson et al. (2019). Simulations on drained BP site were run starting from 1950 and on rewetted R and S sites starting from 1999 (which is the year of cessation of drainage). The climate data inputs (2010-2017) were obtained from ICHEC (EPA_Climate-WRF, 2019). The long-term average climate data for model spin-up were obtained from Met Éireann (2012) with potential evapotranspiration estimated by Thornthwaite (1948) method. Daily ecosystem respiration (Reco) data for May/June 2011 to Aug 2011 obtained from raw CO2 flux measurements (Renou-Wilson et al., 2019) were used. For vegetated sites Rh was estimated from Reco using method explained in Abdalla et al. (2014). Daily CO2 simulations were compared to Reco for BP site (r2 =0.20) and to Rh for R site (r2 = 0.35) and S site (r2 = 0.55). The preliminary results showed some underestimation of simulated CO2 indicating the need for further modelling refinements for satisfactory results. The results from BP site further indicated on the importance of including long-term drainage period (i.e. from 1950 on) because avoiding this step resulted in a large overestimation of predicted CO2.
      306
  • Publication
    Peatland Properties Influencing Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Removal
    A nationwide peatland survey was conducted across 50 ombrotrophic peatlands (bogs) in Ireland to ascertain a wide range of peat properties. In addition to natural (relatively intact) sites, we surveyed the most prevalent peatland land use categories (LUCs): grassland, forestry and peat extraction (both industrial and domestic), as well as management options (deep drained; shallow drained; rewetting). Furthermore, the entirety of the peat profile (down to the sub-peat mineral soil/bedrock) was sampled. Our results demonstrate that Irish bogs have been drastically altered by human activities and that the sampled peat properties reflect the nature and magnitude of the impact of the land use and management.
      816
  • Publication
    Implementation of an Emissions Inventory for UK Peatlands
    This report summarises work undertaken on behalf of the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS) to develop and implement a new method for reporting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from peatlands in the UK’s emissions inventory. The work builds on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 2013 Wetlands Supplement, by providing empirically-based and UK-specific ‘Tier 2’ estimates of emissions from a representative range of peat land-use and condition categories. It collates consistent spatial information on peat extent and condition from each of the four UK administrations, as well as the most peat-rich Crown Dependencies and Overseas Territories (Isle of Man and Falkland Islands respectively). These data were used to assess the overall extent and condition of UK peatlands; to estimate change in condition over the period from 1990 to 2013; to implement the first UK-wide inventory of peatland GHG emissions over this period; and to project future peat-derived GHG emissions through to 2050 based on a set of five illustrative scenarios.
      901
  • Publication
    Rewetting degraded peatlands for climate and biodiversity benefits: Results from two raised bogs
    Globally, peatlands are under threat from a range of land use related factors that have a significant impact on the provision of ecosystem services, such as biodiversity and carbon (C) sequestration/storage. In Ireland, approximately 84% of raised bogs (a priority habitat listed in Annex I of the EU Habitats Directive) have been affected by peat extraction. While restoration implies the return of ecosystem services that were characteristic of the pre-disturbed ecosystem, achieving this goal is often a challenge in degraded peatlands as post-drainage conditions vary considerably between sites. Here, we present multi-year greenhouse gas (GHG) and vegetation dynamics data from two former raised bogs in Ireland that were drained and either industrially extracted (milled) or cut on the margins for domestic use and subsequently rewetted (with no further management). When upscaled to the ecosystem level, the rewetted nutrient poor domestic cutover peatland was a net sink of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) (−49 ± 66 g C m −2 yr −1 ) and a source of methane (CH 4 ) (19.7 ± 5 g C m −2 yr −1 ), while the nutrient rich industrial cutaway was a net source of CO 2 (0.66 ± 168 g C m −2 yr −1 ) and CH 4 (5.0 ± 2.2 g C m −2 yr −1 ). The rewetted domestic cutover site exhibited the expected range of micro-habitats and species composition found in natural (non-degraded) counterparts. In contrast, despite successful rewetting, the industrially extracted peatland did not exhibit typical raised bog flora. This study demonstrated that environmental and management variables can influence species composition and, therefore, the regeneration of species typical of natural sites, and has highlighted the climate benefits from rewetting degraded peatlands in terms of reduced GHG emissions. However, rewetting of degraded peatlands is a major challenge and in some cases reintroduction of bryophytes typical of natural raised bogs may be more difficult than the achievement of proper GHG emission savings.
      834Scopus© Citations 82
  • Publication
    Optimising Water Quality Returns from Peatland Management while Delivering Co-Benefits for Climate and Biodiversity
    Irish peatlands are of national and international importance. Half of the blanket bogs considered to be of conservation importance in the European Atlantic Biogeographic Region are found on this island, along with some of the last Oceanic raised bog remaining in the EU. Irish peatlands are also a significant carbon store, containing ¾ of the total soil carbon stock in the Republic of Ireland. Healthy peatlands help provide natural filtration processes to clean water and reduce the quantity of water entering rivers and lakes; they help regulate the global climate and mitigate climate change; they support unique flora and fauna; and provide multiple social and cultural services to society.
      739
  • Publication
    Peatland dynamics: A review of process-based models and approaches
    Despite peatlands' important feedbacks on the climate and global biogeochemical cycles, predicting their dynamics involves many uncertainties and an overwhelming variety of available models. This paper reviews the most widely used process-based models for simulating peatlands' dynamics, i.e., the exchanges of energy and mass (water, carbon, and nitrogen). ‘Peatlands’ here refers to mires, fens, bogs, and peat swamps both intact and degraded. Using a systematic search (involving 4900 articles), 45 models were selected that appeared at least twice in the literature. The models were classified into four categories: terrestrial ecosystem models (biogeochemical and global dynamic vegetation models, n = 21), hydrological models (n = 14), land surface models (n = 7), and eco-hydrological models (n = 3), 18 of which featured “peatland-specific” modules. By analysing their corresponding publications (n = 231), we identified their proven applicability domains (hydrology and carbon cycles dominated) for different peatland types and climate zones (northern bogs and fens dominated). The studies range in scale from small plots to global, and from single events to millennia. Following a FOSS (Free Open-Source Software) and FAIR (Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, Reusable) assessment, the number of models was reduced to 12. Then, we conducted a technical review of the approaches and associated challenges, as well as the basic aspects of each model, e.g., spatiotemporal resolution, input/output data format and modularity. Our review streamlines the process of model selection and highlights: (i) standardization and coordination are required for both data exchange and model calibration/validation to facilitate intercomparison studies; and (ii) there are overlaps in the models' scopes and approaches, making it imperative to fully optimize the strengths of existing models rather than creating redundant ones. In this regard, we provide a futuristic outlook for a ‘peatland community modelling platform’ and suggest an international peatland modelling intercomparison project.
    Scopus© Citations 6  14
  • Publication
    Optimising soil P levels reduces N2O emissions in grazing systems under different N fertilisation
    The effect of long-term soil phosphorus (P) on in situ nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from temperate grassland soil ecosystems is not well understood. Grasslands typically receive large nitrogen (N) inputs both from animal deposition and fertiliser application, with a large proportion of this N being lost to the environment. Understanding optimum nutrient stoichiometry by applying N fertilisers in a relative balance with P will help to reduce N losses by enabling maximum N-uptake by plants and microbes. This study investigates the N2O response from soils of long-term high and low P management receiving three forms of applied N at two different rates: a nitrate-based fertiliser (KNO3) and an ammonium-based fertiliser ([NH4]2SO4) (both at 40 Kg N ha−1), and a synthetic urine (750 Kg N ha−1). Low soil P significantly increased N2O emissions from KNO3 and (NH4)2SO4 fertilisers by over 50% and numerically increased N2O from urine by over 20%, which is suggested to be representative of the lack of significant effect of N fertilisation on N-uptake observed in the low P soils. There was a significant positive effect of soil P on grass N-uptake observed in the synthetic urine and KNO3 treatments, but not in the (NH4)2SO4 treatment. Low P soils had a significantly lower pH than high P soilss and responded differently to applied synthetic urine. There was also a significant effect of P level on potential nitrification which was nearly three times that of low P, but no significant difference between potential denitrification and P level. The results from this study highlight the importance of synergy between relative nutrient applications as a deficiency of one nutrient, such as P in this case, could be detrimental to the system as a whole. Optimising soil P can result in greater N uptake (over 12, 23 and 66% in (NH4)2SO4, KNO3 and synthetic urine treatments, respectively) and in reduced emissions by up to 50% representing a win-win scenario for farmers.
      143Scopus© Citations 2
  • Publication
    Linking long-term soil phosphorus management to microbial communities involved in nitrogen reactions
    The influence of soil phosphorous (P) content on the N-cycling communities and subsequent effects on N2O emissions remains unclear. Two laboratory incubation experiments were conducted on soils collected from a long-term (est. 1995) P-addition field trial sampled in summer 2018 and winter 2019. Incubations were treated with a typical field amendment rate of N as well as a C-amendment to stimulate microbial activity. Throughout both incubations, soil subsamples were collected prior to fertiliser amendment and then throughout the incubations, to quantify the abundance of bacteria (16S rRNA), fungi (ITS) and Thaumarcheota (16S rRNA) as well as functional guilds of genes involved in nitrification (bacterial and archaeal amoA, and comammox) and denitrification (nirS, nirK, nosZ clade I and II) using quantitative PCR (qPCR). We also evaluated the correlations between each gene abundance and the associated N2O emissions depending on P-treatments. Our results show that long-term P-application influenced N-cycling genes abundance differently. Except for comammox, overall nitrifiers’ genes were most abundant in low P while the opposite trend was found for denitrifiers’ genes. C and N-amendments strongly influenced the abundance of most genes with changes observed as soon as 24 h after application. ITS was the only gene correlated to N2O emissions in the low P-soils while microbes were mostly correlated to emissions in high P, suggesting possible changes in the organisms involved in N2O production depending on soil P-content. This study highlights the importance of long-term P addition on shaping the microbial community function which in turn stimulates a direct impact on the subsequent N emissions.
      196Scopus© Citations 4