Now showing 1 - 10 of 26
  • Publication
    Personal Investigator: a Therapeutic 3D Game for Teenagers
    (SIGCHI, 2004-04-29) ;
    This position paper describes the implementation and initial findings of a game called Personal Investigator (PI). PI is an online 3D detective game that implements a model of Brief Solution Focused Therapy (BSFT). It aims to help teenagers overcome mental health problems and engage with traditional mental health care services. It is predicted that the combination of goal-oriented gaming with a model of goal-oriented therapy will help to attract and sustain the interest of teenagers, a group that therapists often have difficulty engaging with. PI is the first game to integrate this established psychotherapy approach into an engaging online 3D game.
  • Publication
    Extending Interaction for Smart Watches: Enabling Bimanual Around Device Control
    The size of a smart watch limits the available interactive surface for the user. Most current smart watches use a combination of a touch screen and physical buttons. Unfortunately, a small touch screen's usability is limited when it can be easily occluded, such as by a finger. In this paper, we look at extending the interactive surface for a smart watch to the back of the hand. Our approach reduces screen occlusion by enabling off-device gestural interaction. We define a range of supported bimanual gestures and present a prototype device.
      472Scopus© Citations 20
  • Publication
    Pesky gNATs: Using Games to Support Mental Health Interventions for Adolescents
    This position paper gives a brief overview of a long- term and ongoing series of projects focused on the design and evaluation of computer games that can support mental health interventions with young adolescents. The work has its origins in a HCI project, but has evolved into a long-term interdisciplinary collaboration involving game designers, computer scientists and clinical psychologists, amongst others. It has resulted in a series of computer games and mobile apps that support a range of interventions including Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) for depression and anxiety, mindfulness-based CBT, an extended intervention CBT for adolescents experiencing trauma, and a CBT intervention for adults with intellectual disabilities. The games and mobile apps have been widely distributed and have been evaluated through randomised controlled trials in clinical settings. Here we briefly describe each game; the overall design process, motivation, and theoretical background; the results of key evaluations; some of our core lessons.
  • Publication
    Inductive Power Transfer for On-body Sensors. Defining a design space for safe, wirelessly powered on-body health sensors
    Designers of on-body health sensing devices face a difficult choice. They must either minimise the power consumption of devices, which in reality means reducing the sensing capabilities, or build devices that require regular battery changes or recharging. Both options limit the effectiveness of devices. Here we investigate an alternative. This paper presents a method of designing safe, wireless, inductive power transfer into on-body sensor products. This approach can produce sensing devices that can be worn for longer durations without the need for human intervention, whilst also having greater sensing and data capture capabilities. The paper addresses significant challenges in achieving this aim, in particular: device safety, sufficient power transfer, and human factors regarding device geometry. We show how to develop a device that meets stringent international safety guidelines for electromagnetic energy on the body and describe a design space that allows designers to make trade-offs that balance power transfer with other constraints, e.g. size and bulk, that affect the wearability of devices. Finally we describe a rapid experimental method to investigate the optimal placement of on-body devices and the actual versus theoretical power transfer for on-body, inductively powered devices. 
    Scopus© Citations 6  286
  • Publication
    Investigating Contexts of Use for the Development of Domestic Healthcare Technology: An Ethnographic Study
    Current demographic and health trends mean it is becoming imperative to rethink healthcare provision worldwide. This paper introduces SPHERE, a large-scale Interdisciplinary Research Collaboration that aims to make a contribution to addressing this challenge. Specifically, SPHERE is developing a smart home system based on a common platform of non-medical/environmental sensors to address a variety of healthcare needs. In order to achieve its goal of widespread deployment, SPHERE technology must meet the requirements of its envisaged users. In this paper we present the rationale and methodology of an ethnographic study of people's experiences of health and technology. The aim of this study was to gather rich contextual data to inform the design of meaningful and inclusive healthcare technology.
    Scopus© Citations 1  247
  • Publication
    Liveness Through the Lens of Agency and Causality
    Liveness is a well-known problem with Digital Musical Instruments (DMIs). When used in performances, DMIs provide less visual information than acoustic instruments, preventing the audience from understanding how the musicians influence the music. In this paper, we look at this issue through the lens of causality. More specifically, we investigate the attribution of causality by an external observer to a performer, relying on the theory of apparent mental causation. We suggest that the perceived causality between a performer’s gestures and the musical result is central to liveness. We present a framework for assessing attributed causality and agency to a performer, based on a psychological theory which suggests three criteria for inferred causality. These criteria then provide the basis of an experimental study investigating the effect of visual augmentations on audience’s inferred causality. The results provide insights on how the visual component of performances with DMIs impacts the audience’s causal inferences about the performer. In particular we show that visual augmentations help highlight the influence of the musician when parts of the music are automated, and help clarify complex mappings between gestures and sounds. Finally we discuss the potential wider implications for assessing liveness in the design of new musical interfaces.
  • Publication
    Influence of Exposure Guidelines on the Design of On-Body Inductive Power Transfer
    Designers of on-body health sensing devices with inductive power transfer (IPT) face a number of trade-offs. Safe exposure limits should be maintained, and protective housing and padding are generally needed; however, these impose compromises on the power-transfer-system design. This paper analyses these trade-offs and proposes a design route to achieving high power transfer in the presence of field restrictions and separations for padding or housing materials. An IPT system using a Class D coil-driver and switched-mode power-conditioning is designed to provide regulated d.c. and energy storage. Compliance with ICNIRP 1998 guidelines is demonstrated, at a power level that is sufficient to power typical on-body medical sensing devices.
      345Scopus© Citations 3
  • Publication
    User Experience of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Apps for Depression: An Analysis of App Functionality and User Reviews
    Background: Hundreds of mental health apps are available to the general public. With increasing pressures on healthcare systems. they offer a potential way for people to support their mental health and well-being. However, while many are highly rated by users, few are evidence-based. Equally, our understanding of what makes apps engaging and valuable to users is limited. Objective: The aim of this paper was to analyse functionality and user opinions of mobile applications (apps) purporting to support Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) for depression and to explore key factors that have impact on user experience and support engagement. Methods: We systematically identified apps described as being based on CBT for depression. We then conducted two studies. In the first, we analysed the therapeutic functionality of apps. This corroborated existing work on apps’ fidelity to CBT theory, but we also extended prior work by examining features designed to support user engagement. Engagement features found in CBT apps for depression were compared with those found in a larger group of apps that support mental well-being in a more general sense. Our second study involved a more detailed examination of user experience, through a thematic analysis of publicly available user reviews of CBT apps for depression. Results: We identified 31 apps that purport to be based on CBT for depression. Functionality analysis (Study 1) showed that they offered an eclectic mix of features, including many not based on CBT practice. CBT apps used less varied engagement features compared to 253 other mental well-being apps. The analysis of 1,287 user reviews of CBT apps for depression (Study 2) showed that apps are used in a wide range of contexts, both replacing and augmenting therapy, and allowing users to take active role in supporting their mental health and well-being. Users, including health professionals, valued and used apps that incorporated both core CBT and non-CBT elements, but concerns were also expressed regarding the unsupervised use of apps. Positivity was seen as important to engagement, e.g. in the context of automatic thoughts, users express a preference to capture not just negative, but also positive ones. Privacy, security and trust were crucial to the user experience. Conclusions: CBT apps for depression need to do a better job of incorporating evidence-based CBT elements. Equally, a positive user experience is dependent on other design factors, including consideration of varying contexts of use. App designers should be able to clearly identify the therapeutic basis of their apps, but they should also draw on evidence-based strategies to support a positive and engaging user experience. The most effective apps are likely to strike a balance between evidence-based CBT strategies and evidence-based design strategies, including the possibility of eclectic therapeutic techniques.
    Scopus© Citations 114  624
  • Publication
    Barriers to and Facilitators of Technology in Cardiac Rehabilitation and Self-Management: Systematic Qualitative Grounded Theory Review
    Background: Dealing with cardiovascular disease is challenging, and people often struggle to follow rehabilitation and self-management programs. Several systematic reviews have explored quantitative evidence on the potential of digital interventions to support cardiac rehabilitation (CR) and self-management. However, although promising, evidence regarding the effectiveness and uptake of existing interventions is mixed. This paper takes a different but complementary approach, focusing on qualitative data related to people’s experiences of technology in this space. Objective: Through a qualitative approach, this review aims to engage more directly with people’s experiences of technology that supports CR and self-management. The primary objective of this paper is to provide answers to the following research question: What are the primary barriers to and facilitators and trends of digital interventions to support CR and self-management? This question is addressed by synthesizing evidence from both medical and computer science literature. Given the strong evidence from the field of human-computer interaction that user-centered and iterative design methods increase the success of digital health interventions, we also assess the degree to which user-centered and iterative methods have been applied in previous work. Methods: A grounded theory literature review of articles from the following major electronic databases was conducted: ACM Digital Library, PsycINFO, Scopus, and PubMed. Papers published in the last 10 years, 2009 to 2019, were considered, and a systematic search with predefined keywords was conducted. Papers were screened against predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Comparative and in-depth analysis of the extracted qualitative data was carried out through 3 levels of iterative coding and concept development. Results: A total of 4282 articles were identified in the initial search. After screening, 61 articles remained, which were both qualitative and quantitative studies and met our inclusion criteria for technology use and health condition. Of the 61 articles, 16 qualitative articles were included in the final analysis. Key factors that acted as barriers and facilitators were background knowledge and in-the-moment understanding, personal responsibility and social connectedness, and the need to support engagement while avoiding overburdening people. Although some studies applied user-centered methods, only 6 involved users throughout the design process. There was limited evidence of studies applying iterative approaches. Conclusions: The use of technology is acceptable to many people undergoing CR and self-management. Although background knowledge is an important facilitator, technology should also support greater ongoing and in-the-moment understanding. Connectedness is valuable, but to avoid becoming a barrier, technology must also respect and enable individual responsibility. Personalization and gamification can also act as facilitators of engagement, but care must be taken to avoid overburdening people. Further application of user-centered and iterative methods represents a significant opportunity in this space.
    Scopus© Citations 25  14
  • Publication
    Developing Skills for Social and Emotional Wellbeing
    Positive social and emotional well-being are essential for peoples' general health and quality of life. This workshop will bring together an inter-disciplinary community of well-being researchers, designers and practitioners to explore how digital technology can increase well-being by enabling users to develop new skills, build on existing personal strengths or social support, and promote self-efficacy more generally. We will jointly reach a better understanding of the opportunities that technology can bring for skills development across a broad range of contexts. Our aim is to consider how digital technology can support well-being skills for the general public and also for specific, at-need groups including the care givers of people coping with irreversible loss of mental or physical capacity and psycho-education for people experiencing mental health difficulties
      461Scopus© Citations 7