Now showing 1 - 8 of 8
  • Publication
    Protein disorder and short conserved motifs in disordered regions are enriched near the cytoplasmic side of single-pass transmembrane proteins
    Intracellular juxtamembrane regions of transmembrane proteins play pivotal roles in cell signalling, mediated by protein-protein interactions. Disordered protein regions, and short conserved motifs within them, are emerging as key determinants of many such interactions. Here, we investigated whether disorder and conserved motifs are enriched in the juxtamembrane area of human single-pass transmembrane proteins. Conserved motifs were defined as short disordered regions that were much more conserved than the adjacent disordered residues. Human single-pass proteins had higher mean disorder in their cytoplasmic segments than their extracellular parts. Some, but not all, of this effect reflected the shorter length of the cytoplasmic tail. A peak of cytoplasmic disorder was seen at around 30 residues from the membrane. We noted a significant increase in the incidence of conserved motifs within the disordered regions at the same location, even after correcting for the extent of disorder. We conclude that elevated disorder within the cytoplasmic tail of many transmembrane proteins is likely to be associated with enrichment for signalling interactions mediated by conserved short motifs.
      403Scopus© Citations 16
  • Publication
    SLiMFinder : a web server to find novel, significantly over-represented, short protein motifs
    Short, linear motifs (SLiMs) play a critical role in many biological processes, particularly in protein–protein interactions. The Short, Linear Motif Finder (SLiMFinder) web server is a de novo motif discovery tool that identifies statistically over-represented motifs in a set of protein sequences, accounting for the evolutionary relationships between them. Motifs are returned with an intuitive P-value that greatly reduces the problem of false positives and is accessible to biologists of all disciplines. Input can be uploaded by the user or extracted directly from UniProt. Numerous masking options give the user great control over the contextual information to be included in the analyses. The SLiMFinder server combines these with user-friendly output and visualizations of motif context to allow the user to quickly gain insight into the validity of a putatively functional motif. These visualizations include alignments of motif occurrences, alignments of motifs and their homologues and a visual schematic of the top-ranked motifs. Returned motifs can also be compared with known SLiMs from the literature using CompariMotif. All results are available for download. The SLiMFinder server is available at:
      2159Scopus© Citations 62
  • Publication
    SLiMSearch : a webserver for finding novel occurrences of short linear motifs in proteins, incorporating sequence context
    Short, linear motifs (SLiMs) play a critical role in many biological processes. The SLiMSearch (Short, Linear Motif Search) webserver is a flexible tool that enables researchers to identify novel occurrences of pre- defined SLiMs in sets of proteins. Numerous masking options give the user great control over the contextual information to be included in the analyses, including evolutionary filtering and protein structural disorder. User-friendly output and visualizations of motif context allow the user to quickly gain insight into the validity of a putatively functional motif occurrence. Users can search motifs against the human proteome, or submit their own datasets of UniProt proteins, in which case motif support within the dataset is statistically assessed for over- and under-representation, accounting for evolutionary relationships between input proteins. SLiMSearch is freely available as open source Python modules and all webserver results are available for download. The SLiMSearch server is available at:
    Scopus© Citations 11  592
  • Publication
    Marked Variability in the Extent of Protein Disorder within and between Viral Families
    Intrinsically disordered regions in eukaryotic proteomes contain key signaling and regulatory modules and mediate interactions with many proteins. Many viral proteomes encode disordered proteins and modulate host factors through the use of short linear motifs (SLiMs) embedded within disordered regions. However, the degree of viral protein disorder across different viruses is not well understood, so we set out to establish the constraints acting on viruses, in terms of their use of disordered protein regions. We surveyed predicted disorder across 2,278 available viral genomes in 41 families, and correlated the extent of disorder with genome size and other factors. Protein disorder varies strikingly between viral families (from 2.9% to 23.1% of residues), and also within families. However, this substantial variation did not follow the established trend among their hosts, with increasing disorder seen across eubacterial, archaebacterial, protists, and multicellular eukaryotes. For example, among large mammalian viruses, poxviruses and herpesviruses showed markedly differing disorder (5.6% and 17.9%, respectively). Viral families with smaller genome sizes have more disorder within each of five main viral types (ssDNA, dsDNA, ssRNA+, dsRNA, retroviruses), except for negative single-stranded RNA viruses, where disorder increased with genome size. However, surveying over all viruses, which compares tiny and enormous viruses over a much bigger range of genome sizes, there is no strong association of genome size with protein disorder. We conclude that there is extensive variation in the disorder content of viral proteomes. While a proportion of this may relate to base composition, to extent of gene overlap, and to genome size within viral types, there remain important additional family and virus-specific effects. Differing disorder strategies are likely to impact on how different viruses modulate host factors, and on how rapidly viruses can evolve novel instances of SLiMs subverting host functions, such as innate and acquired immunity.
      284Scopus© Citations 43
  • Publication
    SLiMSearch 2.0 : biological context for short linear motifs in proteins
    Short, linear motifs (SLiMs) play a critical role in many biological processes. The SLiMSearch 2.0 (Short, Linear Motif Search) web server allows researchers to identify occurrences of a user-defined SLiM in a proteome, using conservation and protein disorder context statistics to rank occurrences. User-friendly output and visualizations of motif context allow the user to quickly gain insight into the validity of a putatively functional motif occurrence. For each motif occurrence, overlapping UniProt features and annotated SLiMs are displayed. Visualization also includes annotated multiple sequence alignments surrounding each occurrence, showing conservation and protein disorder statistics in addition to known and predicted SLiMs, protein domains and known post-translational modifications. In addition, enrichment of Gene Ontology terms and protein interaction partners are provided as indicators of possible motif function. All web server results are available for download. Users can search motifs against the human proteome or a subset thereof defined by Uniprot accession numbers or GO term. The SLiMSearch server is available at:
      2289Scopus© Citations 64
  • Publication
    In Silico Protein Motif Discovery and Structural Analysis
    A wealth of in silico tools is available for protein motif discovery and structural analysis. The aim of this chapter is to collect some of the most common and useful tools and to guide the biologist in their use. A detailed explanation is provided for the use of Distill, a suite of web servers for the prediction of protein structural features and the prediction of full-atom 3D models from a protein sequence. Besides this, we also provide pointers to many other tools available for motif discovery and secondary and tertiary structure prediction from a primary amino acid sequence. The prediction of protein intrinsic disorder and the prediction of functional sites and SLiMs are also briefly discussed. Given that user queries vary greatly in size, scope and character, the trade-offs in speed, accuracy and scale need to be considered when choosing which methods to adopt.
      113Scopus© Citations 1
  • Publication
    ELM--the database of eukaryotic linear motifs
    Linear motifs are short, evolutionarily plastic components of regulatory proteins and provide low-affinity interaction interfaces. These compact modules play central roles in mediating every aspect of the regulatory functionality of the cell. They are particularly prominent in mediating cell signaling, controlling protein turnover and directing protein localization. Given their importance, our understanding of motifs is surprisingly limited, largely as a result of the difficulty of discovery, both experimentally and computationally. The Eukaryotic Linear Motif (ELM) resource at provides the biological community with a comprehensive database of known experimentally validated motifs, and an exploratory tool to discover putative linear motifs in user-submitted protein sequences. The current update of the ELM database comprises 1800 annotated motif instances representing 170 distinct functional classes, including approximately 500 novel instances and 24 novel classes. Several older motif class entries have been also revisited, improving annotation and adding novel instances. Furthermore, addition of full-text search capabilities, an enhanced interface and simplified batch download has improved the overall accessibility of the ELM data. The motif discovery portion of the ELM resource has added conservation, and structural attributes have been incorporated to aid users to discriminate biologically relevant motifs from stochastically occurring non-functional instances.
      407Scopus© Citations 261
  • Publication
    Peptigram: a web-based application for peptidomics data visualization
    Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) techniques, developed for protein identification, are increasingly being applied in the field of peptidomics. Using this approach, the set of protein fragments observed in a sample of interest can be determined to gain insights into important biological processes such as signaling and other bioactivities. As the peptidomics era progresses, there is a need for robust and convenient methods to inspect and analyze MS/MS derived data. Here, we present Peptigram, a novel tool dedicated to the visualization and comparison of peptides detected by MS/MS. The principal advantage of Peptigram is that it provides visualizations at both the protein and peptide level, allowing users to simultaneously visualize the peptide distributions of one or more samples of interest, mapped to their parent proteins. In this way rapid comparisons between samples can be made in terms of their peptide coverage and abundance. Moreover, Peptigram integrates and displays key sequence features from external databases and links with peptide analysis tools to offer the user a comprehensive peptide discovery resource. Here, we illustrate the use of Peptigram on a data set of milk hydrolysates. For convenience, Peptigram is implemented as a web application, and is freely available for academic use at
      886Scopus© Citations 67