Now showing 1 - 10 of 35
  • Publication
    Methyltransferase Activity of an Iridium Center with Methylpyridinium as Methylene Source
    An iridium center transfers a methyl group from pyridinium to an aryl unit, using exclusively the pyridine-bound methyl group as a mild methylene source. The reaction also involves cleavage of an unactivated C(aryl)[BOND]H bond and nitrile solvent activation. The process is reminiscent of DNA methylation and entails the formation of two new C(sp2)[BOND]C(sp3) bonds within the metal coordination sphere (see scheme).
      389Scopus© Citations 32
  • Publication
    Photolytic water oxidation catalyzed by a molecular carbene iridium complex
    The complex IrCl2(Cp*)(trz) (trz = triazolylidene), 2, was prepared from readily available 1,3-dimethyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3-triazolium salt. Under basic conditions, the C-bound phenyl group readily cyclometalates, while under acidic conditions, cyclometalation is reversed. The sensitivity of the Caryl–Ir bond but not the Ctrz–Ir bond towards acidolysis provided a basis for using 2 as a catalyst in CeIV-mediated water oxidation. The catalytic activity is characterized by a robust catalytic cycle, affording excellent turnover numbers (TON > 20 000). Under cerium-free conditions and in the presence of hematite as a photoelectrode, light-induced activity was observed. The photoelectrochemical reaction is strongly pH-dependent, which requires pH adjustments when running multiple cycle experiments to regenerate the catalytic activity. Analogous chelating complexes display better stability and higher catalytic activity than the monodentate complex 2.
      403Scopus© Citations 91
  • Publication
    Iridium, ruthenium, and palladium complexes containing a mesoionic fused imidazolylidene ligand
    Imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine consisting of a pyridine fused to an imidazolium salt at the imidazolium N1–C2 bond and hence protected from forming normal imidazole-2-ylidene complexes undergoes selective activation of the C5–H bond with Ag2O, i.e. at the imidazolium carbon that is proximal to the pyridine nitrogen. While the silver carbene complex is unstable, transmetallation with [IrCp*Cl2]2, [RuCl2(cym)]2, and [PdCl(allyl)]2 afforded stable mesoionic carbene complexes. Two iridium(III) complexes containing one fused carbene ligand and one palladium(II) complex containing two carbene ligands at the metal centre were structurally characterized. The absence of substituents adjacent to the carbene carbon prevents wingtip group activation, and it imparts a reduced stability of the complexes in particular under (mildly) acidic conditions.
      365Scopus© Citations 12
  • Publication
    PEPPSI-Type Palladium Complexes Containing Basic 1,2,3-Triazolylidene Ligands and Their Role in Suzuki-Miyaura Catalysis
    A series of PEPPSI-type palladium(II) complexes was synthesized that contain 3-chloropyridine as an easily removable ligand and a triazolylidene as a strongly donating mesoionic spectator ligand. Catalytic tests in Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling reactions revealed the activity of these complexes towards aryl bromides and aryl chlorides at moderate temperatures (50 °C). However, the impact of steric shielding was the inverse of that observed with related normal Nheterocyclic carbenes (imidazol-2-ylidenes) and sterically congested mesityl substituents induced lower activity than small alkyl groups. Mechanistic investigations, including mercury poisoning experiments, TEM analyses, and ESI mass spectrometry, provide evidence for ligand dissociation and the formation of nanoparticles as a catalyst resting state. These heterogeneous particles provide a reservoir for soluble palladium atoms or clusters as operationally homogeneous catalysts for the arylation of aryl halides. Clearly, the substitution of a normal N-heterocyclic carbene for a more basic triazolylidene ligand in the precatalyst has a profound impact on the mode of action of the catalytic system.
      485Scopus© Citations 143
  • Publication
    Synthesis and catalytic alcohol oxidation and ketone transfer hydrogenation activity of donor-functionalized mesoionic triazolylidene ruthenium(II) complexes
    We report on the synthesis of a variety of C,E-bidentate triazolylidene ruthenium complexes that comprise different donor substituents E (E=C: phenyl anion; E=O: carboxylate, alkoxide; E=N: pyridine at heterocyclic carbon or nitrogen). Introduction of these donor functionalities is greatly facilitated by the synthetic versatility of triazoles, and their facile preparation routes. Five different complexes featuring a C,E-coordinated ruthenium center with chloride/cymene spectator ligands and three analogous solvento complexes with MeCN spectator ligands were prepared and evaluated as catalyst precursors for direct base- and oxidant-free alcohol dehydrogenation, and for transfer hydrogenation using basic iPrOH as a source of dihydrogen. In both catalytic reactions, the neutral/mono-cationic complexes with chloride/cymene spectator ligands performed better than the solvento ruthenium complexes. The donor functionality had a further profound impact on catalytic activity. For alcohol dehydrogenation, the C,C-bidentate phenyl-triazolylidene ligand induced highest conversions, while carboxylate or pyridine donor sites gave only moderate activity or none at all. In contrast, transfer hydrogenation is most efficient when a pyridyl donor group is linked to the triazolylidene via the heterocyclic carbon atom, providing turnover frequencies as high as 1400 h-1 for cyclohexanone transfer hydrogenation. The role of the donor group is discussed in mechanistic terms.
      559Scopus© Citations 87
  • Publication
    Carbene Iridium Complexes for Efficient Water Oxidation: Scope and Mechanistic Insights
    Iridium complexes of Cp* and mesoionic carbene ligands were synthesized and evaluated as potential water oxidation catalysts using cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate as a chemical oxidant. Performance was evaluated by turnover frequency at 50% conversion and by absolute turnover number, and the most promising precatalysts were studied further. Molecular turnover frequencies varied from 190 to 451 per hour with a maximum turnover number of 38 000. While the rate of oxygen evolution depends linearly on iridium concentration, concurrent spectroscopic and manometric observations following stoichiometric oxidant additions suggest oxygen evolution is limited by two sequential first-order reactions. Under the applied conditions, the oxygen evolving species appears to be a well-defined and molecular species based on kinetic analyses, effects of careful ligand design, reproducibility, and the absence of persistent dynamic light scattering signals. Outside of these conditions, the complex mechanism is highly dependent on reaction conditions. While confident characterization of the catalytically active species is difficult, especially under high-turnover conditions, this work strongly suggests the primary active species under these conditions is a molecular species.
      344Scopus© Citations 93
  • Publication
    Synthesis of 2,3-Dihydro-1-phenylbenzo[b]phosphole (1-Phenylphosphindane) and Its Use as a Mechanistic Test in the Asymmetric Appel Reaction: Decisive Evidence against Involvement of Pseudorotation in the Stereoselecting Step
    Racemic 2,3-dihydro-1-phenylbenzo[b]phosphole was obtained by reduction of 1-phenylbenzo[b]phosphole-1-oxide, itself derived by ring-closing metathesis of phenylstyrylvinylphosphine oxide. The title compound was then reoxidized under asymmetric Appel conditions. Comparison of the sense and degree of the stereoselectivity to those obtained with an open-chain analogue indicated that the ring system does not affect the selectivity of the process. This in turn strongly suggests that the stereoselection is not related to pseudorotamer preferences in putative phosphorane intermediates.
      354Scopus© Citations 26
  • Publication
    N-heterocyclic carbene bonding to cobalt porphyrin complexes
    N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) coordination to a cobalt(III) center embedded in a porphyrin scaffold has been accomplished by decarboxylation from N,N’-dimethylimidazolium-2-carboxylate in the presence of Co(TPP)Cl (TPP = 5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrin). The distal chloride ligand in the resulting complexes Co(NHC)(TPP)Cl was successfully substituted with imidazoles and alcohols. Single crystal X-ray diffraction of the latter complexes Co(NHC)(TPP)(ROH) (R = Me, Et) revealed a pronounced ruffling of the porphyrin macrocycle due to the two ortho methyl groups in the carbene ligand and because of the relatively short distance between the cobalt center and the carbene ligand. Spectroscopic investigations support a substantial porphyrin dearomatization upon NHC bonding.
      882Scopus© Citations 30
  • Publication
    Palladium carbene complexes for selective alkene di- and oligomerization
    A series of palladium complexes were synthesized that comprise three sterically different C,N-bidentate coordinating NHC-pyridine ligands (NHC = N-heterocyclic carbene). In one set, the pyridine and the carbene are linked by a flexible CH2 group (a), in the other two sets, the two ligand units are directly linked and feature a shielding mesityl substituent on the carbene and either an unsubstituted pyridine (b) or a xylyl-substituted pyridine unit (c). Investigation of the reactivity of cationic complexes [Pd(C^N)Me(NCMe)]+, 6, analogues to Brookhart’s α-diimine system, towards alkenes showed a strong correlation between the catalytic activity and selectivity and the ligand setting. While 6a was inactive in ethylene conversion, 6b afforded low-molecular weight olefins (oligomerization), and 6c produced exclusively butene (dimerization). With styrene as substrate, exclusive dimerization occurred with all three complexes. Steric and electronic factors were identified that govern the disparate activity and selectivity, and that allow for efficient tailoring of the catalytic performance.
      471Scopus© Citations 53
  • Publication
    Mesoionic triazolylidene nickel complexes: synthesis, ligand lability, and catalytic C–C bond formation activity
    (American Chemical Society, 2014-07-28) ; ; ;
    A set of triazolylidene (trz) nickel(II) complexes [NiCpX(trz)] was synthesized by a direct metalation of the corresponding triazolium salt with nickelocene, NiCp2. While at short reaction times and in the presence of a coordinating anion X the mono-carbene complex is preferably formed, long reaction times induce the gradual transformation of [NiCpX(trz)] to the bis-carbene complexes [Ni(Cp)(trz)2]+. Kinetic analyses lend strong support to a consecutive pathway involving triazolylidene dissociation from [NiCpX(trz)] en route to the bis-carbene complex. Similar carbene transfer is observed in a solid-state reaction upon heating the complex [NiCpI(trz)] in vacuo, which induces disproportionation to [NiI2(trz)2] and NiCp2, confirming that the Ni–C(trz) bond is kinetically labile. The complexes [Ni(Cp)(trz)2]+ and [NiCpX(trz)] were both efficient catalyst precursors for Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling of aryl bromides and phenylboronic acid, with turnover frequencies exceeding 228 h–1. Complex degradation after short reaction times, identified in separate experiments, prohibits high turnover numbers, and for high conversions, repetitive additions of triazolylidene nickel complex and phenylboronic acid are necessary.
      355Scopus© Citations 47