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  • Publication
    Sentinel-2 imagery analyses for archaeological site detection: an application to Late Bronze Age settlements in Serbian Banat, southern Carpathian Basin
    Satellite remote sensing has become a valuable tool in archaeology, allowing the monitoring of existing and discovery of new sites, and to study their surroundings. Using known Late Bronze Age (LBA) settlements in the Serbian Banat region (southern Carpathian Basin) we assessed the capabilities of Sentinel-2 data for the detection of new archaeological sites. A multi-temporal analysis was performed, and the spectral signatures of soil marks from five known LBA settlements were analysed to determine the best conditions for the identification of archaeological features. Several principal component analyses (PCA), band combinations and two vegetation indices were calculated. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) results from soil marks at known sites demonstrated the impact of settlement characteristics (compositions, subsurface anomalies) on vegetation growth. Applying this further to identify new sites from the satellite data, one hundred and two possible archaeological locations, ranging from only a few hectares to 100 ha, were identified in Banat and Bačka districts of Serbia, to the east and west of the River Tisza. Of the sixty-one possible sites identified in Banat, a sample was visited and their chronology confirmed, proving the enormous capabilities of Sentinel-2 data analyses for site detection.