Now showing 1 - 5 of 5
  • Publication
    Probing Intermetallic Coupling in Dinuclear N-Heterocyclic Carbene Ruthenium(II) Complexes
    A series of bimetallic N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ruthenium(II) complexes were synthesized, which comprise two [RuCl2(cymene)(NHC)] units that are interlinked via the NHC nitrogens by alkyl chains of different length. Electrochemical characterization revealed two mutually dependent oxidation processes for the complex with a methylene linker, indicating moderate intramolecular electronic coupling of the two metal centers (class II system). The degree of coupling decreases rapidly upon increasing the number of CH2 units in the linker and provides essentially decoupled class I species when propylene or butylene linkers are used. Electrochemical analyses combined with structural investigations suggest a through-bond electronic coupling. Replacement of the alkyl linker with a p-phenylene group afforded cyclometalated complexes, which were considerably less stable. The electronic coupling in the methylene-linked complex and the relatively robust NHC–ruthenium bond may provide access to species that are switchable on the molecular scale.
      353Scopus© Citations 47
  • Publication
    Main-chain organometallic polymers comprising redox-active iron(II) centers connected by ditopic N-heterocyclic carbenes
    Main-chain organometallic polymers were synthesized from bimetallic iron(II)complexes containing a ditopic N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand [(cp)(CO)LFe(NHC~NHC)Fe (cp)(CO)L]X2 (where NHC~NHC represents a bridging dicarbene ligand, L = I– or CO). Addition of a diimine ligand such as pyrazine or 4,4’-bipyridine interconnected these bimetallic complexes and gave the corresponding co-polymers containing iron centers that are alternately linked by a dicarbene and a diimine ligand. Diimine coordination was depending on the wingtip groups at the carbene ligands and was accomplished either by photolytic activation of a carbonyl ligand from the cationic [Fe(cp)(NHC)(CO)2]+ precursor (alkyl wingtips) or by AgBF4-mediated halide abstraction from the neutral complex [FeI(cp)(NHC)(CO)] (mesityl wingtips). Remarkably, the polymeric materials were substantially more stable than the related bimetallic model complexes. Electrochemical analyses indicated metal-metal interactions in the pyrazine-containing polymers, whereas in 4,4’-bipyridine-linked systems the metal centers were electronically decoupled.
      817Scopus© Citations 74
  • Publication
    Catalytic Hydrogenation Using Abnormal N-Heterocyclic Carbene Palladium Complexes: Catalytic Scope and Mechanistic Insights
    Palladium complexes containing abnormally bound C4-bound dicarbene ligands have been exploited for catalytic alkene hydrogenation. Comparison to normally C2-bound homologues indicates that the carbene bonding mode critically influences the catalytic activity. Good catalytic performance in the hydrogenation of cis-disubstituted olefins and non-isomerizable terminal olefins under mild conditions (RT, 0.1 MPa H2) only occurs when the carbene is abnormally bound to the palladium center. Detailed mechanistic investigations using dynamic light scattering in connection with time-dependent analysis of conversions, and also performance of substoichiometric catalytic experiments provide evidence that the catalysis is heterogeneous and that the abnormally bound carbene ligand has the role of an activator.
      382Scopus© Citations 22
  • Publication
    Chelating C4-bound imidazolylidene complexes via oxidative addition of imidazolium salts to palladium(0)
    Oxidative addition of donor-functionalised 4-iodoimidazolium salts to palladium(0) provides a selective route for the preparation of chelating abnormal N-heterocylic carbene complexes and enables the introduction of a variety of donor groups. The activation of the C4 position does not necessitate the imidazolium C2 position to be protected, leaving this site available for further modification. While metallation of the unsubstituted C2 position of the N-heterocyclic carbene ligand was unsuccessful when palladium was bound to the C4 carbon, sequential metallation of first the C2 position via transmetallation followed by C4–I oxidative addition afforded a dimetallic complex comprising two palladium centres bridged by a single NHC ligand.
      559Scopus© Citations 37
  • Publication
    Rhodium-mediated activation of an alkane-type C–H bond
    (RSC Publishing, 2010-01-14) ; ;
    Abnormal C4-bonding of N-heterocyclic carbenes effectively modulates the electron density at rhodium and allows for the selective cleavage of an unactivated C(sp3)–H bond, whereas no such intramolecular C–H bond breaking is observed when the carbene binds normally through the C2 carbon.
      445Scopus© Citations 33