Now showing 1 - 10 of 27
  • Publication
    Thromboxane A2 receptor mediated activation of the mitogen activated protein kinase cascades in human uterine smooth muscle cells
    Both thromboxane (TX) A2 and 8-epi prostaglandin (PG) F2alpha have been reported to stimulate mitogenesis of vascular smooth muscle (SM) in a number of species. However, TXA2 and 8-epiPGF2alpha mediated mitogenic signalling have not been studied in detail in human vascular SM. Thus, using the human uterine ULTR cell line as a model, we investigated TXA2 receptor (TP) mediated mitogenic signalling in cultured human vascular SM cells. Both the TP agonist U46619 and 8-epiPGF2alpha elicited time and concentration dependent activation of the extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK)s and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)s in ULTR cells. Whereas the TP antagonist SQ29,548 abolished U46619-mediated signalling, it only partially inhibited 8-epiPGF2alpha mediated ERK and JNK activation in ULTR cells. Both U46619 and 8-epiPGF2alpha induced ERK activations were inhibited by the protein kinase (PK) C, PKA and phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors GF 109203X, H-89 and wortmannin, respectively, but were unaffected by pertussis toxin. In addition, U46619 mediated ERK activation in ULTR cells involves transactivation of the EGF receptor. In humans, TXA2 signals through two distinct TP isoforms. In investigating the involvement of the TP isoforms in mitogenic signalling, both TPalpha and TPbeta, independently directed U46619 and 8-epiPGF2alpha mediated ERK and JNK activation in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells over-expressing the individual TP isoforms. However, in contrast to that which occurred in ULTR cells, SQ29,548 abolished 8-epiPGF2alpha mediated ERK and JNK activation through both TPalpha and TPbeta in HEK 293 cells providing further evidence that 8-epiPGF2alpha may signal through alternative receptors, in addition to the TPs, in human uterine ULTR cells.
      371Scopus© Citations 69
  • Publication
    Regulation of the Human Prostacyclin Receptor Gene by the Cholesterol-responsive Sterol Response Element Binding Protein (SREBP) 1.
    (American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc., 2012-09-11) ;
    Prostacyclin and its prostacyclin receptor, the IP, play essential roles in regulating haemostasis and vascular tone and have also been implicated in a range cardio-protective effects, but through largely unknown mechanisms. In this study, the influence of cholesterol on human (h)IP gene expression was investigated in cultured vascular endothelial and platelet-progenitor megakaryocytic cells. Cholesterol-depletion increased hIP mRNA, hIP promoter-directed reporter gene expression and hIP-induced cAMP generation in all cell types. Furthermore, the constitutively active SREBP1a, but not SREBP2, increased hIP mRNA and promoter-directed gene expression while deletional and mutational analysis uncovered an evolutionary conserved sterol-response element (SRE), adjacent to a known functional Sp1 element, within the core hIP promoter. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed direct cholesterol-regulated binding of SREBP1a to this hIP promoter region in vivo, while immunofluorescence microscopy corroborated that cholesterol-depletion significantly increases hIP expression levels. In conclusion, the hIP gene is directly regulated by cholesterol-depletion that occurs through binding of SREBP1a to a functional SRE within its core promoter. Mechanistically, these data establish that cholesterol can regulate hIP expression which may, at least in part, account for the combined cardio-protective actions of low serum cholesterol through its regulation of prostacyclin receptor (IP) expression within the human vasculature.
      223Scopus© Citations 7
  • Publication
    Estrogen increases expression of the human prostacyclin receptor within the vasculature through an ERα-dependent mechanism
    Prostacyclin and the prostacyclin receptor (IP) are implicated in mediating many of the atheroprotective effects of estrogen in both humans and in animal models but through unknown mechanisms. Hence, herein the influence of estrogen on IP gene expression in endothelial EA.hy926, human erythroleukemia 92.1.7 and primary human (h) aortic smooth muscle (1o hAoSM) cells was investigated. Estrogen increased hIP mRNA levels, promoter (PrmIP)-directed reporter gene expression and cicaprost-dependent cAMP generation in all cell types, effects that were abrogated by actinomycinD and the general estrogen receptor (ER)-α/ERβ antagonist ICI 182,780. Furthermore, the ERα-selective agonist 4,4’,4”-(4-Propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl)trisphenol (PPT), but not the ERβ-agonist 2,3-bis(4-Hydroxyphenly)-propionitrile, significantly increased hIP mRNA and PrmIP-directed gene expression. Deletional and mutational analysis of PrmIP uncovered an evolutionary conserved estrogen-response element (ERE) while electrophoretic mobility shift, antibody-supershift and chromatin immunoprecipitations assays confirmed the direct binding of ERα, but not ERβ, to PrmIP both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, immunofluorescence microscopy corroborated that estrogen and PPT increased hIP expression in 1o hAoSMCs. In conclusion, the hIP gene is directly regulated by estrogen that largely occurs through an ERα-dependent transcriptional mechanism and thereby provides critical insights into the role of prostacyclin/hIP in mediating the atheroprotective effects of estrogen within the human vasculature.
      678Scopus© Citations 22
  • Publication
    Regulated expression of the prostacyclin receptor (IP) gene by androgens within the vasculature: Combined role for androgens and serum cholesterol
    The prostanoid prostacyclin plays a key cardioprotective role within the vasculature. There is increasing evidence that androgens may also confer cardioprotection but through unknown mechanisms. This study investigated whether the androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT) may regulate expression of the prostacyclin/I prostanoid receptor or, in short, the IP in platelet-progenitor megakaryoblastic and vascular endothelial cells. DHT significantly increased IP mRNA and protein expression, IP-induced cAMP generation and promoter (PrmIP)-directed gene expression in all cell types examined. The androgen-responsive region was localised to a cis-acting androgen response element (ARE), which lies in close proximity to a functional sterol response element (SRE) within the core promoter. In normal serum conditions, DHT increased IP expression through classic androgen receptor (AR) binding to the functional ARE within the PrmIP. However, under conditions of low-cholesterol, DHT led to further increases in IP expression through an indirect mechanism involving AR-dependent upregulation of SCAP expression and enhanced SREBP1 processing & binding to the SRE within the PrmIP. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed DHT-induced AR binding to the ARE in vivo in cells cultured in normal serum while, in conditions of low cholesterol, DHT led to increased AR and SREBP1 binding to the functional ARE and SRE cis-acting elements, respectively, within the core PrmIP resulting in further increases in IP expression. Collectively, these data establish that the human IP gene is under the transcriptional regulation of DHT, where this regulation is further influenced by serum-cholesterol levels. This may explain, in part, some of the protective actions of androgens within the vasculature.
      447Scopus© Citations 6
  • Publication
    Prostacyclin receptors: Transcriptional regulation and novel signalling mechanisms
    The prostanoid Prostacyclin plays diverse physiologic roles within the vasculature and other systems, and is widely implicated in several cardiovascular, pulmonary and renal diseases. Despite this, knowledge of the factors regulating expression of the I prostanoid receptor (the IP) remained largely unknown. This review details recent advances in understanding the key transcriptional regulators determining expression of the PTGIR gene in the human vasculature and the identification of novel interacting partners of the IP that impact on its function therein. Included in this are the trans-acting factors that regulate expression of the PTGIR under basal- and regulated-conditions, particularly those determining its up-regulation in response to cellular differentiation, estrogen and low serum-cholesterol. Moreover, the functional implications of the interactions between the IP with PDZK1, a multi PDZ-domain containing protein essential for reverse-cholesterol transport and endothelialization, and the IP with IKEPP, the intestinal and kidney enriched PDZ protein, for the role of the prostacyclin-IP axis within the vasculature are reviewed.
      658Scopus© Citations 15
  • Publication
    Identification of a novel endoplasmic reticulum export motif within the eighth alpha-helical domain (alpha-H8) of the human prostacyclin receptor
    The human prostacyclin receptor (hIP) undergoes agonist-dependent trafficking involving a direct interaction with Rab11a GTPase. The region of interaction was localised to a 14 residue Rab11a binding domain (RBD) within the proximal carboxyl-terminal (C)-tail domain of the hIP, consisting of Val299 – Val307 within the eighth helical domain (alpha-H8) adjacent to the palmitoylated residues at Cys308 – Cys311. However, the factors determining the anterograde transport of the newly synthesised hIP from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the plasma membrane (PM) have not been identified. The aim of the current study was to identify the major ER export motif(s) within the hIP initially by investigating the role of Lys residues in its maturation and processing. Through site-directed and Ala-scanning mutational studies in combination with analyses of protein expression and maturation, functional analyses of ligand binding, agonist-induced intracellular signalling and confocal image analyses, it was determined that Lys297, Arg302 and Lys304 located within alpha-H8 represent the critical determinants of a novel ER export motif of the hIP. Furthermore, while substitution of those critical residues significantly impaired maturation and processing of the hIP, replacement of the positively charged Lys with Arg residues, and vice versa, was functionally permissible. Hence, this study has identified a novel 8 residue ER export motif within the functionally important alpha-H8 of the hIP. This ER export motif, defined by ‘K/R(X)4K/R(X)K/R’, has a strict requirement for positively charged, basic Lys/Arg residues at the 1st, 6th and 8th positions and appears to be evolutionarily conserved within IP sequences from mouse to man.
  • Publication
    Regulation of the human prostacyclin receptor gene in megakaryocytes : major roles for C/EBPδ and PU.1
    The prostanoid prostacyclin plays a central role in haemostasis and vascular repair. Recent studies investigating the regulation of the human prostacyclin receptor (hIP) gene identified an upstream repressor region (URR) within its regulatory promoter, herein termed the PrmIP. This study aimed to identify the main transacting factors that bind within the URR to transcriptionally repress PrmIP-directed gene expression in the megakaryoblastic human erythroleukemia (HEL) 92.1.7 cell line. Of the putative cis-acting elements examined, disruption of C/EBP and PU.1 elements within the URR substantially increased PrmIP-directed gene expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) confirmed that C/EBPδ and PU.1, but not C/EBPβ, bind to the URR in vivo, while ectopic expression of C/EBPδ substantially reduced hIP mRNA levels and PrmIP-directed gene expression. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced megakaryocytic differentiation increased hIP mRNA and PrmIP-directed reporter gene expression and hIP-mediated cAMP generation in HEL cells. Two PMA-responsive regions, termed PRR1 and PRR2, were identified within PrmIP. Disruption of C/EBPδ and PU.1 cis-elements within the overlapping PRR1/URR and of Sp1, PU.1 and Oct-1 cis-elements within the overlapping PRR2/core PrmIP, revealed that both PRR1 and PRR2 contribute to the PMA- induction of hIP mRNA and gene expression in HEL cells. Furthermore, ChIP analysis established that induction of PrmIP-directed gene expression during megakaryocytic differentiation is largely regulated by PMA-induced dissociation of C/EBPδ and enhanced binding of PU.1 to PRR1 in addition to increased binding of Sp1, PU.1 and Oct-1 to elements within the core promoter/PRR2 in vivo. Taken together, these data provide critical insights into the transcriptional regulation of the hIP gene within the vasculature, including during megakaryocytic differentiation.
      1438Scopus© Citations 5
  • Publication
    Transcriptional regulation of the human thromboxane A2 receptor gene by Wilms' tumor (WT)1 and hypermethylated in cancer (HIC) 1 in prostate and breast cancers
    The prostanoid thromboxane (TX) A2 plays a central role in hemostasis and is increasingly implicated in neoplastic disease, including prostate and breast cancers. In humans, TXA2 signals through the TPα and TPβ isoforms of the T prostanoid receptor, two structurally related receptors transcriptionally regulated by distinct promoters, Prm1 and Prm3, respectively, within the TP gene. Focusing on TPα, the current study investigated its expression and transcriptional regulation through Prm1 in prostate and breast cancers. Expression of TPα correlated with increasing prostate and breast tissue tumor grade while the TXA2 mimetic U46619 promoted both proliferation and migration of the respective prostate (PC3) and breast (MCF-7 and MDA-MD-231) derived-carcinoma cell lines. Through 5′ deletional and genetic reporter analyses, several functional upstream repressor regions (URRs) were identified within Prm1 in PC3, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells while site-directed mutagenesis identified the tumor suppressors Wilms' tumor (WT)1 and hypermethylated in cancer (HIC) 1 as the trans-acting factors regulating those repressor regions. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) studies confirmed that WT1 binds in vivo to multiple GC-enriched WT1 cis-elements within the URRs of Prm1 in PC3, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, ChIP analyses established that HIC1 binds in vivo to the HIC1(b)cis-element within Prm1 in PC3 and MCF-7 cells but not in the MDA-MB-231 carcinoma line. Collectively, these data establish that WT1 and HIC1, both tumor suppressors implicated in prostate and breast cancers, transcriptionally repress TPα expression and thereby provide a strong genetic basis for understanding the role of TXA2 in the progression of certain human cancers.
      585Scopus© Citations 14
  • Publication
    Differential expression of the TPα and TPβ isoforms of the human T Prostanoid receptor during chronic inflammation of the prostate: Role for FOXP1 in the transcriptional regulation of TPβ during monocyte-macrophage differentiation
    Inflammation is linked to prostate cancer (PCa) and to other diseases of the prostate. The prostanoid thromboxane (TX)A2 is a pro-inflammatory mediator implicated in several prostatic diseases, including PCa. TXA2 signals through the TPα and TPβ isoforms of the T Prostanoid receptor (TP) which exhibit several functional differences and transcriptionally regulated by distinct promoters Prm1 and Prm3, respectively, within the TBXA2R gene. This study examined the expression of TPα and TPβ in inflammatory infiltrates within human prostate tissue. Strikingly, TPβ expression was detected in 94% of infiltrates, including in B- and T-lymphocytes and macrophages. In contrast, TPα was more variably expressed and, where present, expression was mainly confined to macrophages. To gain molecular insight into these findings, expression of TPα and TPβ was evaluated as a function of monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation in THP-1 cells. Expression of both TPα and TPβ was upregulated following phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-induced differentiation of monocytic THP-1 to their macrophage lineage. Furthermore, FOXP1, an essential transcriptional regulator down-regulated during monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation, was identified as a key trans-acting factor regulating TPβ expression through Prm3 in THP-1 cells. Knockdown of FOXP1 increased TPβ, but not TPα, expression in THP-1 cells, while genetic reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analyses established that FOXP1 exerts its repressive effect on TPβ through binding to four cis-elements within Prm3. Collectively, FOXP1 functions as a transcriptional repressor of TPβ in monocytes. This repression is lifted in differentiated macrophages, allowing for upregulation of TPβ expression and possibly accounting for the prominent expression of TPβ in prostate tissue-resident macrophages.
      547Scopus© Citations 3
  • Publication
    Interaction of the Human Prostacyclin Receptor and the NHERF4 Family member Intestinal and Kidney Enriched PDZ Protein (IKEPP)
    Prostacyclin and its I Prostanoid receptor, the IP, play central roles in haemostasis and in re-endothelialization in response to vascular injury. Herein, Intestinal and Kidney Enriched PDZ Protein (IKEPP) was identified as an interactant of the human (h) IP mediated through binding of PDZ domain 1 (PDZD1) and, to a lesser extent, PDZD2 of IKEPP to a carboxyl-terminal Class I ‘PDZ ligand’ within the hIP. While the interaction is constitutive, agonist-activation of the hIP leads to cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PK) A and PKC- phosphorylation of IKEPP, coinciding with its increased interaction with the hIP. Ectopic expression of IKEPP increases functional expression of the hIP, enhancing its ligand binding and agonist-induced cAMP generation. Originally thought to be restricted to renal and gastrointestinal tissues, herein, IKEPP was also found to be expressed in vascular endothelial cells where it co-localizes and complexes with the hIP. Furthermore, siRNA-disruption of IKEPP expression impaired hIP-induced endothelial cell migration and in vitro angiogenesis, revealing the functional importance of the IKEPP:IP interaction within the vascular endothelium. Identification of IKEPP as a functional interactant of the IP reveals novel mechanistic insights into the role of these proteins within the vasculature and, potentially, in other systems where they are co-expressed.
      370Scopus© Citations 4