Now showing 1 - 10 of 12
  • Publication
    Exploiting the genome sequence of Streptomyces nodosus for enhanced antibiotic production
    The genome of the amphotericin producer Streptomyces nodosus was sequenced. A single scaffold of 7,714,110 bp was obtained. Biosynthetic genes were identified for several natural products including polyketides, peptides, siderophores and terpenes. The majority of these clusters specified known compounds. Most were silent or expressed at low levels and unlikely to compete with amphotericin production. Biosynthesis of a skyllamycin analogue was activated by introducing expression plasmids containing either a gene for a LuxR transcriptional regulator or genes for synthesis of the acyl moiety of the lipopeptide. In an attempt to boost amphotericin production, genes for acyl CoA carboxylases, a phosphopantetheinyl transferase and the AmphRIV transcriptional activator were overexpressed, and the effects on yields were investigated. This study provides the groundwork for metabolic engineering of S. nodosus strains to produce high yields of amphotericin analogues.
      499Scopus© Citations 20
  • Publication
    Biosynthesis of amphotericin derivatives lacking exocyclic carboxyl groups
    Amphotericin B is a medically important antifungal antibiotic that is also active against human immunodeficiency virus, Leishmania parasites, and prion diseases. The therapeutic use of amphotericin B is restricted by severe side effects that can be moderated by liposomal formulation or structural alteration. Chemical modification has shown that suppression of charge on the exocyclic carboxyl group of amphotericin B substantially reduces toxicity. We report targeted deletions of the amphN cytochrome P450 gene from the chromosome of the amphotericin-producing bacterium Streptomyces nodosus. The mutant strains produced amphotericin analogues in which methyl groups replace the exocyclic carboxyl groups. These compounds retained antifungal activity and had reduced hemolytic activity.
      243Scopus© Citations 96
  • Publication
    Versatility of enzymes catalyzing late steps in polyene 67-121C biosynthesis
    (Taylor and Francis, 2013-05-22) ; ;
    Actinoplanes caeruleus produces 67-121C, a heptaene macrolide modified with a D-mannosyl-D-mycosaminyl disaccharide. Draft genome sequencing revealed genes encoding mycosaminyltransferase, mycosamine synthase, a cytochrome P450 that modifies the macrolactone core, and the extending mannosyltransferase. Only the mycosamine synthase and P450 were active in the biosynthesis of amphotericins in Streptomyces nodosus, the amphotericin producer.
      333Scopus© Citations 13
  • Publication
    Engineered biosynthesis and characterisation of disaccharide-modified 8-deoxyamphoteronolides
    Several polyene macrolides are potent antifungal agents that have severe side effects. Increased glycosylation of these compounds can improve water solubility and reduce toxicity. Three extending glycosyltransferases are known to add hexoses to the mycosaminyl sugar residues of polyenes. The Actinoplanes caeruleus PegA enzyme catalyses attachment of a D-mannosyl residue in a β-1,4 linkage to the mycosamine of the aromatic heptaene 67-121A to form 67-121C. NppY from Pseudonocardia autotrophica adds an N-acetyl-D-glucosamine to the mycosamine of 10-deoxynystatin. NypY from Pseudonocardia sp. P1 adds an extra hexose to a nystatin, but the identity of the sugar is unknown. Here, we express the nypY gene in Streptomyces nodosus amphL and show that NypY modifies 8-deoxyamphotericins more efficiently than C-8 hydroxylated forms. The modified heptaene was purified and shown to be mannosyl-8-deoxyamphotericin B. This had the same antifungal activity as amphotericin B but was slightly less haemolytic. Chemical modification of this new disaccharide polyene could give better antifungal antibiotics.
      431Scopus© Citations 7
  • Publication
    Polyene macrollide biosynthesis in streptomycetes and related bacteria: recent advances from genome sequencing and experimental studies
    The polyene macrolide group includes important antifungal drugs, to which resistance does not arise readily. Chemical and biological methods have been used in attempts to make polyene antibiotics with fewer toxic side effects. Genome sequencing of producer organisms is contributing to this endeavour, by providing access to new compounds and by enabling yield improvement for polyene analogues obtained by engineered biosynthesis. This recent work is also enhancing bioinformatic methods for deducing the structures of cryptic natural products from their biosynthetic enzymes. The stereostructure of candicidin D has recently been determined by NMR spectroscopy. Genes for the corresponding polyketide synthase have been uncovered in several different genomes. Analysis of this new information strengthens the view that protein sequence motifs can be used to predict double bond geometry in many polyketides. Chemical studies have shown that improved polyenes can be obtained by modifying the mycosamine sugar that is common to most of these compounds. Glycoengineered analogues might be produced by biosynthetic methods, but polyene glycosyltransferases show little tolerance for donors other than GDP-α-D-mycosamine. Genome sequencing has revealed extending glycosyltransferases that add a second sugar to the mycosamine of some polyenes. NppY of Pseudonocardia autotrophica uses UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine as donor whereas PegA from Actinoplanes caeruleus uses GDP-α-D-mannose. These two enzymes show 51 % sequence identity and are also closely related to mycosaminyltransferases. These findings will assist attempts to construct glycosyltransferases that transfer alternative UDP- or (d)TDP-linked sugars to polyene macrolactones.
      330Scopus© Citations 33
  • Publication
    Streptomyces nodosus Host Strains Optimised for Glycosylation Engineering
    The AmphDI glycosyltransferase transfers a mycosaminyl sugar residue from GDP onto 8-deoxyamphoteronolide B, the aglycone of the antifungal amphotericin B. In this study the amphDI gene was inactivated in Streptomyces nodosus strains lacking the AmphN cytochrome P450. The new mutants produced 8-deoxy-16-methyl-16-descarboxyl amphoteronolides in high yield. These strains and aglycones should prove valuable for in vivo and in vitro glycosylation engineering.
      189Scopus© Citations 13
  • Publication
    New insights into polyene macrolide biosynthesis in Couchioplanes caeruleus
    (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2017-05-01) ; ;
    Couchioplanes caeruleus DSM43634 synthesises 67–121C, an aromatic heptaene macrolide that contains a mannosyl-mycosaminyl disaccharide. An improved draft genome sequence was used to obtain the biosynthetic gene cluster for this antifungal. Bioinformatic analysis of the polyketide synthase indicated that extension modules 7 and 8 contain A-type ketoreductase and dehydratase domains. These modules are therefore predicted to form cis double bonds. The deduced stereostructure of the 67–121C macrolactone is identical to that experimentally determined for the partricin subgroup of aromatic heptaenes. Some of these polyenes are N-methylated on the aminoacetophenone moiety. The C. caeruleus AceS protein was shown to methylate 4-aminoacetophenone and esters of 4-aminobenzoate, but not 4-aminobenzoate. This suggests that the substrate specificity of AceS prevents it from interfering with folate biosynthesis. The methyltransferase should be valuable for chemoenzymatic alkylation of compounds that contain aminobenzoyl moieties.
      439Scopus© Citations 9
  • Publication
    Biosynthesis of Deoxyamphotericins and Deoxyamphoteronolides by Engineered Strains of Streptomyces nodosus
    Amphotericin B is an antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus. During biosynthesis of amphotericin, the macrolactone core undergoes three modifications: oxidation of a methyl branch to a carboxyl group, mycosaminylation, and hydroxylation. Gene disruption was undertaken to block two of these modifications. Initial experiments targeted the amphDIII gene, which encodes a GDP-D-mannose 4,6-dehydratase involved in biosynthesis of mycosamine. Analysis of products by mass spectrometry and NMR indicated that the amphDIII mutant produced 8-deoxyamphoteronolides A and B. This suggests that glycosylation with mycosamine normally precedes C-8 hydroxylation and that formation of the exocyclic carboxyl group can occur prior to both these modifications. Inactivation of the amphL cytochrome P450 gene led to production of novel polyenes with masses appropriate for 8-deoxyamphotericins A and B. These compounds retained antifungal activity and may be useful new antibiotics.
      278Scopus© Citations 64
  • Publication
    Phosphomannose isomerase and phosphomannomutase gene disruptions in Streptomyces nodosus: impact on amphotericin biosynthesis and implications for glycosylation engineering
    Streptomycetes synthesise several bioactive natural products that are modified with sugar residues derived from GDP-mannose. These include the antifungal polyenes, the antibacterial antibiotics hygromycin A and mannopeptimycins, and the anticancer agent bleomycin. Three enzymes function in biosynthesis of GDP-mannose from the glycolytic intermediate fructose 6-phosphate: phosphomannose isomerase (PMI), phosphomannomutase (PMM) and GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMPP). Synthesis of GDP-mannose from exogenous mannose requires hexokinase or phosphotransferase enzymes together with PMM and GMPP. In this study, a region containing genes for PMI, PMM and GMPP was cloned from Streptomyces nodosus, producer of the polyenes amphotericins A and B. Inactivation of the manA gene for PMI resulted in production of amphotericins and their aglycones, 8-deoxyamphoteronolides. A double mutant lacking the PMI and PMM genes produced 8-deoxyamphoteronolides in good yields along with trace levels of glycosylated amphotericins. With further genetic engineering these mutants may activate alternative hexoses as GDP-sugars for transfer to aglycones in vivo.
      385Scopus© Citations 31
  • Publication
    Biosynthetic engineering of polyene macrolides for generation of improved antifungal and antiparasitic agents
    Polyene macrolides are potent antifungal agents that are also active against parasites, enveloped viruses and prion diseases. They are medically important as antifungal antibiotics but their therapeutic use is limited by serious side effects. In recent years there has been considerable progress in genetic analysis and manipulation of the streptomycetes that produce nystatin, amphotericin B, candicidin, pimaricin and rimocidin/CE-108-related polyenes. This has led to engineered biosynthesis of several new polyenes that are not easily obtained as semi-synthetic derivatives. This review summarises recent advances made since the subject was last reviewed in 2003. Polyene biosynthesis generally involves assembly and cyclisation of a polyketide chain, followed by oxidative modifications and glycosylation of the macrolactone ring. New derivatives have been obtained by engineering both early and late stages of polyene biosynthetic pathways. These compounds have allowed more detailed investigations of structure-activity relationships and some are likely to show improvements in therapeutic index. The biosynthetic approach is already yielding sufficient material for testing the toxicity and activity of new compounds, thus opening possibilities for discovery of leads for development of effective and safe antifungal and antiparasitic agents.
      371Scopus© Citations 67