Now showing 1 - 10 of 16
  • Publication
    Cyclic nucleotide-dependent Protein Kinases Inhibit Binding of 14-3-3 to the GTPase-activating Protein Rap1GAP2 in Platelets
    (American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2008-01-25) ; ; ; ;
    GTPase-activating proteins are required to terminate signaling by Rap1, a small guanine nucleotide-binding protein that controls integrin activity and cell adhesion. Recently, we identified Rap1GAP2, a GTPase-activating protein of Rap1 in platelets. Here we show that 14-3-3 proteins interact with phosphorylated serine 9 at the N terminus of Rap1GAP2. Platelet activation by ADP and thrombin enhances serine 9 phosphorylation and increases 14-3-3 binding to endogenous Rap1GAP2. Conversely, inhibition of platelets by endothelium-derived factors nitric oxide and prostacyclin disrupts 14-3-3 binding. These effects are mediated by cGMP- and cAMP-dependent protein kinases that phosphorylate Rap1GAP2 at serine 7, adjacent to the 14-3-3 binding site. 14-3-3 binding does not change the GTPase-activating function of Rap1GAP2 in vitro. However, 14-3-3 binding attenuates Rap1GAP2 mediated inhibition of cell adhesion. Our findings define a novel crossover point of activatory and inhibitory signaling pathways in platelets.
      567Scopus© Citations 36
  • Publication
    The RhoA regulators Myo9b and GEF-H1 are targets of cyclic nucleotide-dependent kinases in platelets
    Background: Circulating platelets are maintained in an inactive state by the endothelial lining of the vasculature. Endothelium-derived prostacyclin and nitric oxide stimulate cAMP- and cGMP-dependent kinases, PKA and PKG, to inhibit platelets. PKA and PKG effects include the inhibition of the GTPase RhoA, which has been suggested to involve the direct phosphorylation of RhoA on serine 188. Objectives: We wanted to confirm RhoA S188 phosphorylation by cyclic nucleotide-dependent kinases and to identify possible alternative mechanisms of RhoA regulation in platelets. Methods: Phosphoproteomics data of human platelets were used to identify candidate PKA and PKG substrates. Phosphorylation of individual proteins was studied by Western blotting and Phos-tag gel electrophoresis in human platelets and transfected HEK293T cells. Pull-down assays were performed to analyze protein interaction and function. Results: Our data indicate that RhoA is not phosphorylated by PKA in platelets. Instead, we provide evidence that cyclic nucleotide effects are mediated through the phosphorylation of the RhoA-specific GTPase-activating protein Myo9b and the guanine nucleotide exchange factor GEF-H1. We identify Myo9b S1354 and guanine nucleotide exchange factor-H1 (GEF-H1) S886 as PKA and PKG phosphorylation sites. Myo9b S1354 phosphorylation enhances its GTPase activating protein function leading to reduced RhoA-GTP levels. GEF-H1 S886 phosphorylation stimulates binding of 14-3-3β and has been shown to inhibit GEF function by facilitating binding of GEF-H1 to microtubules. Microtubule disruption increases RhoA-GTP levels confirming the importance of GEF-H1 in platelets. Conclusion: Phosphorylation of RhoA regulatory proteins Myo9b and GEF-H1, but not RhoA itself, is involved in cyclic nucleotide-mediated control of RhoA in human platelets.
      327Scopus© Citations 12
  • Publication
    Cyclic Nucleotide Dependent Dephosphorylation of Regulator of G-protein Signaling 18 in Human Platelets
    (Public Library of Science, 2013-11) ; ;
    Regulator of G-protein signaling 18 (RGS18) is a GTPase-activating protein that turns off Gq signaling in platelets. RGS18 is regulated by binding to the adaptor protein 14-3-3 via phosphorylated serine residues S49 and S218 on RGS18. In this study we confirm that thrombin, thromboxane A2, or ADP stimulate the interaction of RGS18 and 14-3-3 by increasing the phosphorylation of S49. Cyclic AMP- and cyclic GMP-dependent kinases (PKA, PKG) inhibit the interaction of RGS18 and 14-3-3 by phosphorylating S216. To understand the effect of S216 phosphorylation we studied the phosphorylation kinetics of S49, S216, and S218 using Phos-tag gels and phosphorylation site-specific antibodies in transfected cells and in platelets. Cyclic nucleotide-induced detachment of 14-3-3 from RGS18 coincides initially with double phosphorylation of S216 and S218. This is followed by dephosphorylation of S49 and S218. Dephosphorylation of S49 and S218 might be mediated by protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) which is linked to RGS18 by the regulatory subunit PPP1R9B (spinophilin). We conclude that PKA and PKG induced S216 phosphorylation triggers the dephosphorylation of the 14-3-3 binding sites of RGS18 in platelets.
      365Scopus© Citations 15
  • Publication
    The NO/cGMP pathway inhibits Rap 1 activation in human platelets via cGMP-dependent protein kinase I
    The NO/cGMP signalling pathway strongly inhibits agonist-induced platelet aggregation. However, the molecular mechanisms involved are not completely defined. We have studied NO/cGMP effects on the activity of Rap 1, an abundant guanine-nucleotidebinding protein in platelets. Rap 1-GTP levels were reduced by NO-donors and activators of NO-sensitive soluble guanylyl cyclase. Four lines of evidence suggest that NO/cGMP effects are mediated by cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGKI): (i) Rap 1 inhibition correlated with cGKI activity as measured by the phosphorylation state of VASP, an established substrate of cGKI, (ii) 8-pCPT-cGMP, a membrane permeable cGMP-analog and activator of cGKI, completely blocked Rap1 activation, (iii) Rp-8pCPT-cGMPS, a cGKI inhibitor, reversed NO effects and (iv) expression of cGKI in cGKI-deficient megakaryocytes inhibited Rap1 activation. NO/cGMP/cGKI effects were independent of the type of stimulus used for Rap1 activation. Thrombin-,ADP- and collagen-induced formation of Rap 1-GTP in platelets as well as turbulence-induced Rap 1 activation in megakaryocytes were inhibited. Furthermore, cGKI inhibited ADP-induced Rap 1 activation induced by the Galpha(i)-coupled P2Y12 receptor alone, i.e. independently of effects on Ca2+-signalling. From these studies we conclude that NO/cGMP inhibit Rap 1 activation in human platelets and that this effect is mediated by cGKI. Since Rap1 controls the function of integrin alpha(IIb)beta3, we propose that Rap 1 inhibition might play a central role in the anti-aggregatory actions of NO/cGMP.
      439Scopus© Citations 51
  • Publication
    Novel roles of cAMP/cGMP dependent signaling in platelets
    (Wiley, 2012-02-02)
    Endothelial prostacyclin and nitric oxide potently inhibit platelet functions. Prostacyclin and nitric oxide actions are mediated by platelet adenylyl and guanylyl cyclases, which synthesize cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cyclic GMP (cGMP), respectively. Cyclic nucleotides stimulate cAMP-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase A [PKA]I and PKAII) and cGMP-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase G [PKG]I) to phosphorylate a broad panel of substrate proteins. Substrate phosphorylation results in the inactivation of small G-proteins of the Ras and Rho families, inhibition of the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores, and modulation of actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Thus, PKA/PKG substrates translate prostacyclin and nitric oxide signals into a block of platelet adhesion, granule release, and aggregation. cAMP and cGMP are degraded by phosphodiesterases, which might restrict signaling to specific subcellular compartments. An emerging principle of cyclic nucleotide signaling in platelets is the high degree of interconnection between activating and cAMP/cGMP-dependent inhibitory signaling pathways at all levels, including cAMP/cGMP synthesis and breakdown, and PKA/PKG-mediated substrate phosphorylation. Furthermore, defects in cAMP/cGMP pathways might contribute to platelet hyperreactivity in cardiovascular disease. This article focuses on recent insights into the regulation of the cAMP/cGMP signaling network and on new targets of PKA and PKG in platelets.
      682Scopus© Citations 221
  • Publication
    Synaptotagmin-like protein 1 interacts with the GTPase-activating protein Rap1GAP2 and regulates dense granule secretion in platelets
    The small guanine-nucleotide–binding protein Rap1 plays a key role in platelet aggregation and hemostasis, and we recently identified Rap1GAP2 as the only GTPase-activating protein of Rap1 in platelets. In search of Rap1GAP2-associated proteins, we performed yeast-2-hybrid screening and found synaptotagmin-like protein 1 (Slp1) as a new binding partner. We confirmed the interaction of Rap1GAP2 and Slp1 in transfected COS-1 and HeLa cells and at endogenous level in human platelets. Mapping studies showed that Rap1GAP2 binds through amino acids T524-K525-X-T527 within its C-terminus to the C2A domain of Slp1. Slp1 contains a Rab27-binding domain, and we demonstrate that Rap1GAP2, Slp1, and Rab27 form a trimeric complex in transfected cells and in platelets. Purified Slp1 dose-dependently decreased dense granule secretion in streptolysin-O–permeabilized platelets stimulated with calcium or guanosine 5′-O-[gamma-thio] triphosphate. The isolated C2A domain of Slp1 had a stimulatory effect on granule secretion and reversed the inhibitory effect of full-length Slp1. Purified Rap1GAP2 augmented dense granule secretion of permeabilized platelets, whereas deletion of the Slp1-binding TKXT motif abolished the effect of Rap1GAP2. We conclude that Slp1 inhibits dense granule secretion in platelets and that Rap1GAP2 modulates secretion by binding to Slp1.
      702Scopus© Citations 30
  • Publication
    Cyclic Nucleotide-dependent Protein Kinases Target ARHGAP17 and ARHGEF6 Complexes in Platelets
    (American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2015-12-11) ; ; ; ;
    Endothelial cells release prostacyclin (PGI2) and nitric oxide (NO) to inhibit platelet functions. PGI2 and NO effects are mediated by cyclic nucleotides, cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinases (PKA, PKG), and largely unknown PKA and PKG substrate proteins. The small G-protein Rac1 plays a key role in platelets and was suggested to be a target of cyclic nucleotide signaling. We confirm that PKA and PKG activation reduces Rac1-GTP levels. Screening for potential mediators of this effect resulted in the identification of the Rac1-specific GTPase-activating protein ARHGAP17 and the guanine nucleotide exchange factor ARHGEF6 as new PKA and PKG substrates in platelets. We mapped the PKA/PKG phosphorylation sites to serine 702 on ARHGAP17 using Phos-tag gels and to serine 684 on ARHGEF6. We show that ARHGAP17 binds to the actin-regulating CIP4 protein in platelets and that Ser-702 phosphorylation interferes with this interaction. Reduced CIP4 binding results in enhanced inhibition of cell migration by ARHGAP17. Furthermore, we show that ARHGEF6 is constitutively linked to GIT1, a GAP of Arf family small G proteins, and that ARHGEF6 phosphorylation enables binding of the 14-3-3 adaptor protein to the ARHGEF6/GIT1 complex. PKA and PKG induced rearrangement of ARHGAP17- and ARHGEF6-associated protein complexes might contribute to Rac1 regulation and platelet inhibition.
      524Scopus© Citations 27
  • Publication
    Endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxation and VASP serines 157/239 phosphorylation by cyclic nucleotide-elevating vasodilators in rat aorta
    Endothelium-dependent vasodilation is thought to be mediated primarily by the NO/cGMP signaling pathway whereas cAMP-elevating vasodilators are considered to act independent of the endothelial cell layer. However, recent functional data suggest that cAMP-elevating vasodilators such as β-receptor agonists, adenosine or forskolin may also be endothelium-dependent. Here we used functional and biochemical assays to analyze endothelium-dependent, cGMP- and cAMP-mediated signaling in rat aorta. Acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) induced a concentration-dependent relaxation of phenylephrine-precontracted aorta. This response was reflected by the phosphorylation of the vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP), a validated substrate of cGMP- and cAMP-dependent protein kinases (cGK, cAK), on Ser157 and Ser239. As expected, the effects of acetylcholine were endothelium-dependent. However, relaxation induced by the β-receptor agonist isoproterenol was also almost completely impaired after endothelial denudation. At the biochemical level, acetylcholine- and isoproterenol-evoked cGK and cAK activation, respectively, as measured by VASP Ser239 and Ser157 phosphorylation, was strongly diminished. Furthermore, the effects of isoproterenol were repressed by eNOS inhibition when endothelium was present. We also observed that the relaxing and biochemical effects of forskolin were at least partially endothelium-dependent. We conclude that cAMP-elevating vasodilators, i.e. isoproterenol and to a lesser extent also forskolin, induce vasodilation and concomitant cyclic nucleotide protein kinase activation in the vessel wall in an endothelium-dependent way.
      417Scopus© Citations 51
  • Publication
    Quantitative analysis of the cardiac fibroblast transcriptome-implications for NO/cGMP signaling
    Cardiac fibroblasts regulate tissue repair and remodeling in the heart. To quantify transcript levels in these cells we performed a comprehensive gene expression study using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). Among 110,169 sequenced tags we could identify 30,507 unique transcripts. A comparison of SAGE data from cardiac fibroblasts with data derived from total mouse heart revealed a number of fibroblast-specific genes. Cardiac fibroblasts expressed a specific collection of collagens, matrix proteins and metalloproteinases, growth factors, and components of signaling pathways. The NO/cGMP signaling pathway was represented by the mRNAs for α1 and β1 subunits of guanylyl cyclase, cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I (cGK I), and, interestingly, the G-kinase-anchoring protein GKAP42. The expression of cGK I was verified by RT-PCR and Western blot. To establish a functional role for cGK I in cardiac fibroblasts we studied its effect on cell proliferation. Selective activation of cGK I with a cGMP analog inhibited the proliferation of serum-stimulated cardiac fibroblasts, which express cGK I, but not higher passage fibroblasts, which contain no detectable cGK I. Currently, our data suggest that cGK I mediates the inhibitory effects of the NO/cGMP pathway on cardiac fibroblast growth. Furthermore the SAGE library of transcripts expressed in cardiac fibroblasts provides a basis for future investigations into the pathological regulatory mechanisms underlying cardiac fibrosis.
      404Scopus© Citations 19
  • Publication
    Rap1GAP2 is a new GTPase-activating protein of Rap1 expressed in human platelets
    (American Society of Hematology, 2005-04-15) ; ;
    The Ras-like guanine-nucleotide-binding protein Rap1 controls integrin alpha(IIb)beta3 activity and platelet aggregation. Recently, we have found that Rap1 activation can be blocked by the nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (NO/cGMP) signaling pathway by type 1 cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGKI). In search of possible targets of NO/cGMP/cGKI, we studied the expression of Rap1-specific GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) and guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) in platelets. We could detect mRNAs for a new protein most closely related to Rap1GAP and for postsynaptic density-95 discs-large and zona occludens protein 1 (PDZ)-GEF1 and CalDAG-GEFs I and III. Using 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), we isolated the complete cDNA of the new GAP encoding a 715-amino acid protein, which we have termed Rap1GAP2. Rap1GAP2 is expressed in at least 3 splice variants, 2 of which are detectable in platelets. Endogenous Rap1GAP2 protein partially colocalizes with Rap1 in human platelets. In transfected cells, we show that Rap1GAP2 exhibits strong GTPase-stimulating activity toward Rap1. Rap1GAP2 is highly phosphorylated, and we have identified cGKI as a Rap1GAP2 kinase. cGKI phosphorylates Rap1GAP2 exclusively on serine 7, a residue present only in the platelet splice variants of Rap1GAP2. Phosphorylation of Rap1GAP2 by cGKI might mediate inhibitory effects of NO/cGMP on Rap1. Rap1GAP2 is the first GTPase-activating protein of Rap1 found in platelets and is likely to have an important regulatory role in platelet aggregation.
      424Scopus© Citations 77