Now showing 1 - 10 of 16
  • Publication
    Rap1GAP2 is a new GTPase-activating protein of Rap1 expressed in human platelets
    (American Society of Hematology, 2005-04-15) ; ;
    The Ras-like guanine-nucleotide-binding protein Rap1 controls integrin alpha(IIb)beta3 activity and platelet aggregation. Recently, we have found that Rap1 activation can be blocked by the nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (NO/cGMP) signaling pathway by type 1 cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGKI). In search of possible targets of NO/cGMP/cGKI, we studied the expression of Rap1-specific GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) and guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) in platelets. We could detect mRNAs for a new protein most closely related to Rap1GAP and for postsynaptic density-95 discs-large and zona occludens protein 1 (PDZ)-GEF1 and CalDAG-GEFs I and III. Using 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), we isolated the complete cDNA of the new GAP encoding a 715-amino acid protein, which we have termed Rap1GAP2. Rap1GAP2 is expressed in at least 3 splice variants, 2 of which are detectable in platelets. Endogenous Rap1GAP2 protein partially colocalizes with Rap1 in human platelets. In transfected cells, we show that Rap1GAP2 exhibits strong GTPase-stimulating activity toward Rap1. Rap1GAP2 is highly phosphorylated, and we have identified cGKI as a Rap1GAP2 kinase. cGKI phosphorylates Rap1GAP2 exclusively on serine 7, a residue present only in the platelet splice variants of Rap1GAP2. Phosphorylation of Rap1GAP2 by cGKI might mediate inhibitory effects of NO/cGMP on Rap1. Rap1GAP2 is the first GTPase-activating protein of Rap1 found in platelets and is likely to have an important regulatory role in platelet aggregation.
      346Scopus© Citations 74
  • Publication
    Lighting up kinase action in platelets
    (Wiley, 2017-07)
    In this issue of the Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis Hiratsuka et al. present novel data on the roles of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) during thrombus formation in mice.
      297Scopus© Citations 1
  • Publication
    Cyclic nucleotide-dependent Protein Kinases Inhibit Binding of 14-3-3 to the GTPase-activating Protein Rap1GAP2 in Platelets
    (American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2008-01-25) ; ; ; ;
    GTPase-activating proteins are required to terminate signaling by Rap1, a small guanine nucleotide-binding protein that controls integrin activity and cell adhesion. Recently, we identified Rap1GAP2, a GTPase-activating protein of Rap1 in platelets. Here we show that 14-3-3 proteins interact with phosphorylated serine 9 at the N terminus of Rap1GAP2. Platelet activation by ADP and thrombin enhances serine 9 phosphorylation and increases 14-3-3 binding to endogenous Rap1GAP2. Conversely, inhibition of platelets by endothelium-derived factors nitric oxide and prostacyclin disrupts 14-3-3 binding. These effects are mediated by cGMP- and cAMP-dependent protein kinases that phosphorylate Rap1GAP2 at serine 7, adjacent to the 14-3-3 binding site. 14-3-3 binding does not change the GTPase-activating function of Rap1GAP2 in vitro. However, 14-3-3 binding attenuates Rap1GAP2 mediated inhibition of cell adhesion. Our findings define a novel crossover point of activatory and inhibitory signaling pathways in platelets.
      378Scopus© Citations 35
  • Publication
    Phosphodiesterases link the aryl hydrocarbon receptor complex to cyclic nucleotide signaling
    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a major transcription factor regulated by different mechanisms. The classical view of AHR activation by xenobiotics needs to be amended by recent findings on the regulation of AHR by endogenous ligands and by crosstalk with other signaling pathways. In the cytosol the AHR recruits a large number of binding partners, including HSP90, p23, XAP2 and the ubiquitin ligases cullin 4B and CHIP. Furthermore, XAP2 binds the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases PDE2A and PDE4A5. PDE2A inhibits nuclear translocation of AHR suggesting an important regulatory role of cyclic nucleotides in AHR trafficking. Signaling involving cAMP is organized in subcellular compartments and a distinct cAMP compartment might be required for proper AHR mobility and function. We conclude that the AHR complex integrates ligand binding and cyclic nucleotide signaling to generate an adequate transcriptional response.
      446Scopus© Citations 19
  • Publication
    Synaptotagmin-like protein 4 and Rab8 interact and increase dense granule release in platelets
    Background: Platelets are highly specialized cells that regulate hemostasis and thrombosis in the vasculature. Upon activation, platelets release various granules that impact on platelets, the coagulation system, other blood cells and the vessel wall; however, the mechanisms controlling granule release are only partially known. We have shown previously that synaptotagmin-like protein (Slp)1 decreases dense granule release in platelets. Objectives: To determine the role of other Slps and their binding partners on platelet dense granule release. Methods: RT-PCR and immunoblotting were used to identify Slps in human platelets. Interaction between Slp4 and Rab8 was investigated with pull-down assays, coimmunoprecipitation, and confocal microscopy. Secretion assays on permeabilized platelets were performed to investigate the effects of Slp4 and Rab8 on dense granule release. Results: Slp4 mRNA and protein are expressed in human platelets. Slp4 interacts with Rab8 in transfected cells and at endogenous protein levels in platelets. We mapped the Rab interaction site to the Slp-homology domain of Slp4, and showed preferential binding of Slp4 to the GTP-bound form of Rab8. Live microscopy showed colocalization of green fluorescent protein-Slp4 and mCherry-Rab8 at the plasma membrane of transfected cells. Endogenous platelet Slp4 and Rab8 colocalized in the center of activated platelets, where granule secretion takes place. Secretion assays revealed that Slp4 and Rab8 enhance dense granule release and that the Slp4 effect is dependent on Rab8 binding. Conclusions: Slp4 and Rab8 are expressed and interact in human platelets, and might be involved in dense granule release.
      380Scopus© Citations 25
  • Publication
    Analysis of Protein Phosphorylation Using Phos-Tag Gels
    Phos-tag gels are recent tools to dissect protein phosphorylation that operate by inducing a shift in the electrophoretic mobility of phosphorylated proteins compared to their nonphosphorylated counterparts. This article describes the preparation and electrophoresis of Zn2+ -Phos-tag gels along with electrotransfer of the separated phospho- and nonphosphoproteins onto a PVDF membrane using either wet-tank or semidry transfer. We also discuss the theory behind the technology with critical parameters to keep in mind for its successful application.
      320Scopus© Citations 22
  • Publication
    Cyclic Nucleotide Dependent Dephosphorylation of Regulator of G-protein Signaling 18 in Human Platelets
    (Public Library of Science, 2013-11) ; ;
    Regulator of G-protein signaling 18 (RGS18) is a GTPase-activating protein that turns off Gq signaling in platelets. RGS18 is regulated by binding to the adaptor protein 14-3-3 via phosphorylated serine residues S49 and S218 on RGS18. In this study we confirm that thrombin, thromboxane A2, or ADP stimulate the interaction of RGS18 and 14-3-3 by increasing the phosphorylation of S49. Cyclic AMP- and cyclic GMP-dependent kinases (PKA, PKG) inhibit the interaction of RGS18 and 14-3-3 by phosphorylating S216. To understand the effect of S216 phosphorylation we studied the phosphorylation kinetics of S49, S216, and S218 using Phos-tag gels and phosphorylation site-specific antibodies in transfected cells and in platelets. Cyclic nucleotide-induced detachment of 14-3-3 from RGS18 coincides initially with double phosphorylation of S216 and S218. This is followed by dephosphorylation of S49 and S218. Dephosphorylation of S49 and S218 might be mediated by protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) which is linked to RGS18 by the regulatory subunit PPP1R9B (spinophilin). We conclude that PKA and PKG induced S216 phosphorylation triggers the dephosphorylation of the 14-3-3 binding sites of RGS18 in platelets.
      270Scopus© Citations 14
  • Publication
    Endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxation and VASP serines 157/239 phosphorylation by cyclic nucleotide-elevating vasodilators in rat aorta
    Endothelium-dependent vasodilation is thought to be mediated primarily by the NO/cGMP signaling pathway whereas cAMP-elevating vasodilators are considered to act independent of the endothelial cell layer. However, recent functional data suggest that cAMP-elevating vasodilators such as β-receptor agonists, adenosine or forskolin may also be endothelium-dependent. Here we used functional and biochemical assays to analyze endothelium-dependent, cGMP- and cAMP-mediated signaling in rat aorta. Acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) induced a concentration-dependent relaxation of phenylephrine-precontracted aorta. This response was reflected by the phosphorylation of the vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP), a validated substrate of cGMP- and cAMP-dependent protein kinases (cGK, cAK), on Ser157 and Ser239. As expected, the effects of acetylcholine were endothelium-dependent. However, relaxation induced by the β-receptor agonist isoproterenol was also almost completely impaired after endothelial denudation. At the biochemical level, acetylcholine- and isoproterenol-evoked cGK and cAK activation, respectively, as measured by VASP Ser239 and Ser157 phosphorylation, was strongly diminished. Furthermore, the effects of isoproterenol were repressed by eNOS inhibition when endothelium was present. We also observed that the relaxing and biochemical effects of forskolin were at least partially endothelium-dependent. We conclude that cAMP-elevating vasodilators, i.e. isoproterenol and to a lesser extent also forskolin, induce vasodilation and concomitant cyclic nucleotide protein kinase activation in the vessel wall in an endothelium-dependent way.
      354Scopus© Citations 49
  • Publication
    Cyclic Nucleotide-dependent Protein Kinases Target ARHGAP17 and ARHGEF6 Complexes in Platelets
    (American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2015-12-11) ; ; ; ;
    Endothelial cells release prostacyclin (PGI2) and nitric oxide (NO) to inhibit platelet functions. PGI2 and NO effects are mediated by cyclic nucleotides, cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinases (PKA, PKG), and largely unknown PKA and PKG substrate proteins. The small G-protein Rac1 plays a key role in platelets and was suggested to be a target of cyclic nucleotide signaling. We confirm that PKA and PKG activation reduces Rac1-GTP levels. Screening for potential mediators of this effect resulted in the identification of the Rac1-specific GTPase-activating protein ARHGAP17 and the guanine nucleotide exchange factor ARHGEF6 as new PKA and PKG substrates in platelets. We mapped the PKA/PKG phosphorylation sites to serine 702 on ARHGAP17 using Phos-tag gels and to serine 684 on ARHGEF6. We show that ARHGAP17 binds to the actin-regulating CIP4 protein in platelets and that Ser-702 phosphorylation interferes with this interaction. Reduced CIP4 binding results in enhanced inhibition of cell migration by ARHGAP17. Furthermore, we show that ARHGEF6 is constitutively linked to GIT1, a GAP of Arf family small G proteins, and that ARHGEF6 phosphorylation enables binding of the 14-3-3 adaptor protein to the ARHGEF6/GIT1 complex. PKA and PKG induced rearrangement of ARHGAP17- and ARHGEF6-associated protein complexes might contribute to Rac1 regulation and platelet inhibition.
      396Scopus© Citations 21
  • Publication
    Phosphodiesterase 2A forms a complex with the co-chaperone XAP2 and regulates nuclear translocation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor
    (American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2007-05-04) ; ; ; ;
    Phosphodiesterase type 2A (PDE2A) hydrolyzes cyclic nucleotides cAMP and cGMP, thus efficiently controlling cNMP-dependent signaling pathways. PDE2A is composed of an amino-terminal region, two regulatory GAF domains, and a catalytic domain. Cyclic nucleotide hydrolysis is known to be activated by cGMP binding to GAF-B; however, other mechanisms may operate to fine-tune local cyclic nucleotide levels. In a yeast two-hybrid screening we identified XAP2, a crucial component of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) complex, as a major PDE2A-interacting protein. We mapped the XAP2 binding site to the GAF-B domain of PDE2A. PDE assays with purified proteins showed that XAP2 binding does not change the enzymatic activity of PDE2A. To analyze whether PDE2A could affect the function of XAP2, we studied nuclear translocation of AhR, i.e. the master transcription factor controlling the expression of multiple detoxification genes. Notably, regulation of AhR target gene expression is initiated by tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD) binding to AhR and by a poorly understood cAMP-dependent pathway followed by the translocation of AhR from the cytosol into the nucleus. Binding of PDE2A to XAP2 inhibited TCDD- and cAMP-induced nuclear translocation of AhR in Hepa1c1c7 hepatocytes. Furthermore, PDE2A attenuated TCDD-induced transcription in reporter gene assays. We conclude that XAP2 targets PDE2A to the AhR complex, thereby restricting AhR mobility, possibly by a local reduction of cAMP levels. Our results provide first insights into the elusive cAMP-dependent regulation of AhR.
      392Scopus© Citations 90