Now showing 1 - 3 of 3
  • Publication
    Analysis of heart rate variability amongst cyclists under perceived variations of risk exposure
    Cycling as a mode of travel provides an opportunity for many people to increase their levels of regular physical activity and contribute to their mental and physical health. Heart rate is often used as a means of measuring the intensity and energy expenditure of physical activity. However, heart rate is also linked to emotional factors such as anxiety and fear. Perceptions of risk due to external factors such as other road users and infrastructure may arouse such emotions in urban cyclists. The present study set out to investigate whether or not perceptions of risk among urban cyclists may lead to increased heart rates. Cyclists completed a test route in normal traffic conditions in Cork, Ireland and heart rates and self-reported risk ratings were recorded in real time. Evidence was found of a link between perceptions of risk and heart rates. This raises questions regarding the use of heart rate to estimate exercise intensity and energy expenditure during urban cycling. The perceptions of cyclists of their safety in relation to various road elements on familiar routes were also assessed, as well as specific events which they perceive to be high in risk. The results indicate that incidents involving car traffic and busy roads which offer no protection from interaction with car traffic are associated with greatest perceptions of risk.
      393Scopus© Citations 26
  • Publication
    Experimental tests of survey responses to expenditure questions
    (University College Dublin. Geary Institute, 2009-07) ; ;
    This paper tests for a number of survey effects in the elicitation of expenditure items. In particular we examine the extent to which individuals use features of the expenditure question to construct their answers. We test whether respondents interpret question wording as researchers intend and examine the extent to which prompts, clarifications and seemingly arbitrary features of survey design influence expenditure reports. We find that over one quarter of respondents have difficulty distinguishing between “you” and “your household” when making expenditure reports; that respondents report higher pro-rata expenditure when asked to give responses on a weekly as opposed to monthly or annual time scale; that respondents give higher estimates when using a scale with a higher mid-point; and that respondents give higher aggregated expenditure when categories are presented in a disaggregated form. In summary, expenditure reports are constructed using convenient rules of thumb and available information, which will depend on the characteristics of the respondent, the expenditure domain and features of the survey question. It is crucial to further account for these features in ongoing surveys.
  • Publication
    Heterogeneous interpretation of “household expenditure” in survey reports : evidence and implications of bias
    (University College Dublin. Geary Institute, 2010-06) ;
    This paper addresses respondents’ interpretation of the term “household expenditure” when answering survey questions. A sizeable minority of respondents do not attempt to include all transactions made by every household member, interpreting the question as eliciting individual consumption. This biases estimates of expenditure downward. Furthermore, this bias is predicted by respondent characteristics.