Now showing 1 - 4 of 4
  • Publication
    Role of metabolomics in identification of biomarkers related to food intake
    (Cambridge University Press, 2019-02-15) ; ;
    Dietary assessment methods including FFQ and food diaries are associated with many measurement errors including energy under-reporting and incorrect estimation of portion sizes. Such errors can lead to inconsistent results especially when investigating the relationship between food intake and disease causation. To improve the classification of a person's dietary intake and therefore clarify proposed links between diet and disease, reliable and accurate dietary assessment methods are essential. Dietary biomarkers have emerged as a complementary approach to the traditional methods, and in recent years, metabolomics has developed as a key technology for the identification of new dietary biomarkers. The objective of this review is to give an overview of the approaches used for the identification of biomarkers and potential use of the biomarkers. Over the years, a number of strategies have emerged for the discovery of dietary biomarkers including acute and medium term interventions and cross-sectional/cohort study approaches. Examples of the different approaches will be presented. Concomitant with the focus on single biomarkers of specific foods, there is an interest in the development of biomarker signatures for the identification of dietary patterns. In the present review, we present an overview of the techniques used in food intake biomarker discover, including the experimental approaches used and challenges faced in the field. While significant progress has been achieved in the field of dietary biomarkers in recent years, a number of challenges remain. Addressing these challenges will be key to ensure success in implementing use of dietary biomarkers.
      646Scopus© Citations 29
  • Publication
    Metabolomic Based Approach to Identify Biomarkers of Apple Intake
    SCOPE:There is an increased interest in developing biomarkers of food intake to address some of the limitations associated with self-reported data. The objective was to identify biomarkers of apple intake, examine dose-response relationships and agreement with self-reported data. METHODS AND RESULTS:Metabolomic data from three studies were examined: an acute intervention, a short-term intervention and a free-living cohort study. Fasting and postprandial urine samples were collected for analysis by 1 H-NMR and LC-MS. Calibration curves were developed to determine apple intake and classify individuals into categories of intake. Multivariate analysis of data revealed that levels of multiple metabolites increased significantly post-apple consumption, compared to the control food- broccoli. In the dose-response study, urinary xylose, epicatechin sulfate and 2, 6-dimethyl-2-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3,4-dihydro-2H-1-benzopyran increased as apple intake increased. Urinary xylose concentrations in a free-living cohort performed poorly at an individual level but were capable of ranking individuals in categories of intake. CONCLUSION:Urinary xylose exhibited a dose-response relationship with apple intake and performed well as a ranking biomarker in the population study. Other potential biomarkers were identified and future work will combine these with xylose in a biomarker panel which may allow for a more objective determination of individual intake.
      502Scopus© Citations 10
  • Publication
    Potential of food intake biomarkers in nutrition research
    (Cambridge University Press, 2020-07-02) ;
    The influence of dietary habits on health/disease is well-established. Accurate dietary assessment is essential to understand metabolic pathways/processes involved in this relationship. In recent years, biomarker discovery has become a major area of interest for improving dietary assessment. Well-established nutrient intake biomarkers exist, however, there is growing interest in identifying and using biomarkers for more accurate and objective measurements of food intake. Metabolomics has emerged as a key tool used for biomarker discovery, employing techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, or mass-spectrometry. To date, a number of putatively identified biomarkers were discovered for foods including meat, cruciferous vegetables and legumes. However, many of the results are associations only and lack the desired validation including dose-response studies. Food intake biomarkers can be employed to classify individuals into consumers/ non-consumers of specific foods or, into dietary patters. Food intake biomarkers can play a role in correcting self-reported measurement error, thus improving dietary intake estimates. Quanitification of food intake was previously performed for citrus (proline betaine), chicken (guanidoacetate) and grape (tartaric acid) intake. However, this area still requires more investigation and expansion to a range of foods. The present review will assess current literature of identified specific food intake biomarkers, their validation and the variety of biomarker uses. Addressing utility of biomarkers and highlighting gaps in this area is important to advance the field in the context of nutrition research.
      525Scopus© Citations 6
  • Publication
    The Potential of Multi-Biomarker Panels in Nutrition Research: Total Fruit Intake as an Example
    Dietary and food intake biomarkers offer the potential of improving the accuracy of dietary assessment. An extensive range of putative intake biomarkers of commonly consumed foods have been identified to date. As the field of food intake biomarkers progresses toward solving the complexities of dietary habits, combining biomarkers associated with single foods or food groups may be required. The objective of this work was to examine the ability of a multi-biomarker panel to classify individuals into categories of fruit intake. Biomarker data was measured using H NMR spectroscopy in two studies: (1) An intervention study where varying amounts of fruit was consumed and (2) the National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS). Using data from an intervention study a biomarker panel (Proline betaine, Hippurate, and Xylose) was constructed from three urinary biomarker concentrations. Biomarker cut-off values for three categories of fruit intake were developed. The biomarker sum cut-offs were ≤ 4.766, 4.766–5.976, >5.976 μM/mOsm/kg for <100, 101–160, and >160 g fruit intake. The ability of the biomarker sum to classify individuals into categories of fruit intake was examined in the cross-sectional study (NANS) (N = 565). Examination of results in the cross-sectional study revealed excellent agreement with self-reported intake: a similar number of participants were ranked into each category of fruit intake. The work illustrates the potential of multi-biomarker panels and paves the way forward for further development in the field. The use of such panels may be key to distinguishing foods and adding specificity to the predictions of food intake. 1
      95Scopus© Citations 11