Now showing 1 - 3 of 3
  • Publication
    Treatment of stimulant use disorder: A systematic review of reviews
    (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2020-06-18) ; ; ; ;
    AIMS:Stimulant use disorder contributes to a substantial worldwide burden of disease, although evidence-based treatment options are limited. This systematic review of reviews aims to: (i) synthesize the available evidence on both psychosocial and pharmacological interventions for the treatment of stimulant use disorder; (ii) identify the most effective therapies to guide clinical practice, and (iii) highlight gaps for future study. METHODS:A systematic database search was conducted to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Eligible studies were those that followed standard systematic review methodology and assessed randomized controlled trials focused on the efficacy of interventions for stimulant use disorder. Articles were critically appraised using an assessment tool adapted from Palmeteer et al. and categorized for quality as 'core' or 'supplementary' reviews. Evidence from the included reviews were further synthesized according to pharmacological or non-pharmacological management themes. RESULTS:Of 476 identified records, 29 systematic reviews examining eleven intervention modalities were included. The interventions identified include: contingency management, cognitive behavioural therapy, acupuncture, antidepressants, dopamine agonists, antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, disulfiram, opioid agonists, N-Acetylcysteine, and psychostimulants. There was sufficient evidence to support the efficacy of contingency management programs for treatment of stimulant use disorder. Psychostimulants, n-acetylcysteine, opioid agonist therapy, disulfiram and antidepressant pharmacological interventions were found to have insufficient evidence to support or discount their use. Results of this review do not support the use of all other treatment options. CONCLUSIONS:The results of this review supports the use of contingency management interventions for the treatment of stimulant use disorder. Although evidence to date is insufficient to support the clinical use of psychostimulants, our results demonstrate potential for future research in this area. Given the urgent need for effective pharmacological treatments for stimulant use disorder, high-quality primary research focused on the role of psychostimulant medications for the treatment of stimulant use disorder is needed.
      191Scopus© Citations 55
  • Publication
    A needs assessment of the number of comprehensive addiction care physicians required in a Canadian setting
    Objective: Medical professionals adequately trained to prevent and treat substance use disorders are in short supply in most areas of the world. Whereas physician training in addiction medicine can improve patient and public health outcomes, the coverage estimates have not been established. We estimated the extent of the need for medical professionals skilled in addiction medicine in a Canadian setting. Methods: We used Monte-Carlo simulations to generate medians and 95% credibility intervals for the burden of alcohol and drug use harms, including morbidity and mortality, in British Columbia, by geographic health region. We obtained prevalence estimates for the models from the Medical Services Plan billing, the Discharge Abstract Database data, and the government surveillance data. We calculated a provider availability index (PAI), a ratio of the size of the labor force per 1000 affected individuals, for each geographic health region, using the number of American Board of Addiction Medicine certified physicians in each area. Results: Depending on the data source used for population estimates, the availability of specialized addiction care providers varied across geographic health regions. For drug-related harms, we found the highest PAI of 23.72 certified physicians per 1000 affected individuals, when using the Medical Services Plan and Discharge Abstract Database data. Drawing on the surveillance data, the drug-related PAI dropped to 0.46. The alcohol-related PAI ranged between 0.10 and 86.96 providers, depending on data source used for population estimates. Conclusions: Our conservative estimates highlight the need to invest in healthcare provider training and to develop innovative approaches for more rural health regions.
      232Scopus© Citations 8
  • Publication
    Alcohol use in opioid agonist treatment
    (BioMed Central, 2016-12-08) ; ;
    Alcohol misuse among individuals receiving agonist treatment for an opioid use disorder is common and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. At present, though substantial research highlights effective strategies for the screening, diagnosis and management of an alcohol or opioid use disorder individually, less is known about how best to care for those with a dual diagnosis especially since common treatments for opioid addiction may be contraindicated in a setting of alcohol use. This review summarizes existing research and characterizes the prevalence, clinical implications and management of alcohol misuse among individuals with opioid addiction. Furthermore, it highlights clinically relevant management strategies in need of future research to advance care for this unique, but important, patient population.
      215Scopus© Citations 26