Now showing 1 - 7 of 7
  • Publication
    Academic Advising in Civil Engineering: design and evaluation of a hybrid model
    A project to formalise and expand Academic Advising has been implemented at the UCD Civil Engineering School. The goals of this project were twofold: on the one hand, it aimed at training faculty members in Academic Advising roles and providing them with the necessary resources. On the other hand, the project sought to expand student interaction, in particular by engaging students informally in order to build a rapport between them and the academic advisors that we expect will bring long term benefits. The resulting model combines elements of both the prescriptive, e.g., formal training, informative talks on key topics, and developmental approaches, e.g., coffee mornings for students and faculty members. The evaluation of the project was carried out through questionnaires and focus groups. It highlighted very positive feedback from the students, who find these new lines of communication with the academic staff to be useful and productive.
      106Scopus© Citations 2
  • Publication
    Appraising an incentive only approach to encourage a sustainable reduction in private car trips in Dublin, Ireland
    The research presented in this paper examines the potential for a reduction in car use in the Greater Dublin Area (GDA) as a result of introducing a range of sustainable policy incentives. A package of mode-specific incentives devised to encourage a mode shift away from single occupancy vehicle (SOV) use to walking, cycling, public transport, carpooling and car-sharing were examined for their potential to reduce car mode share. The policies tested were represented in a four-stage transportation model to generate new mode choices and subsequently new mode shares. Changes in mode share were similarly analysed in terms of tailpipe emissions savings from changes in SOV kilometres travelled and estimations of the potential monetary savings accrued from a reduction in emissions. Ultimately, an indication of possible reductions in private car use and the potential for a rise in sustainable mode choice and a reduction in car trips was ascertained in the GDA. Modelling was conducted in collaboration with the National Transport Authority (NTA) of Ireland to represent the policy changes by means of parameter modifications in the Mode Choice and Trip Assignment stages of the Eastern Regional Model. These changes were made to account for modifications made to infrastructure, frequency, time and cost parameters. A 2012 Base Year and forecasted 2035 scenario were considered in this study. Outputs from these modelled scenarios produced mode share estimates derived from new origin-destination trip demand and mode choice predictions. The results showed that the policy interventions tested incentivised more mode shifting behaviour among sustainable modes rather than from private car trips to public transport and active mode trips. Moreover, it was estimated that active mode users were more elastic or sensitive to changes made in the pedestrian network than the cycling network, which is reflected in mode shifting from cycling to walking. A reduction in the mode share of private cars of up to 1.6% and an increase in walking of up to 5% were estimated across the modelled scenarios in the GDA, and a daily monetary saving of up to €14,125 could be achieved as a result of reductions in CO2, NOx, and PM2.5 private car emissions from the introduction of the policy incentives tested. Overall, this study assesses the behavioural impacts of introducing a range of policy incentives alone on private car use and produces evidence to support the effectiveness of a carrot and sticks approach versus an incentive only method.
    Scopus© Citations 6  259
  • Publication
    Modelling the potential benefits of increased active travel
    This research examines the behavioural response of commuters within the Greater Dublin Area (GDA), Ireland, to a range of policy incentives designed to encourage travellers to make greater use of sustainable travel modes for work. Several policy measures were evaluated using discrete choice and four stage modelling methods, to estimate the propensity of commuters to shift to active modes use (walking and cycling) rather than single occupancy vehicle (SOV). As a means of appraising the hypothetical introduction of a range of active mode policy incentives, a stated preference experiment (SP) was created as an instrument for gathering decision making, mode choice and socio-demographic data from a sample of commuters in the GDA, based on a number of designed policy scenarios. Extensive transport modelling work was subsequently conducted with the National Transport Authority (NTA) of Ireland using the National Regional Modelling System (RMS). A representation of the policy changes explored in the SP experiment was made in this four-stage transport model in order to produce real-life estimates of trip making behaviour and mode share, to test the behavioural response of the introduction of the policy incentives. Changes to parameters in the Mode Choice and Trip Assignment stages of the four-stage model were made to account for improvements made to the infrastructure and time attributes of walking and cycling in the model. The modifications were made based on ‘Do Nothing/Base’, ‘Do Something’, and ‘Do Maximum’ scenarios, which were determined by attribute level values taken from the SP survey. The findings produced in this study show a marked inelasticity of commuters to react in response to improvements made to the level of service of cycling, while on the contrary exhibiting high levels of elasticity to changes made to pedestrian infrastructure. Outputs from these model scenarios found that pedestrians in the GDA were most sensitive to the policy incentives tested. The results highlight that investing in improvements to the public realm may be a more worthwhile investment in order to encourage a modal shift to walking for commuting trip purposes.
      243Scopus© Citations 11
  • Publication
    Micromobility and public transport integration: The current state of knowledge
    Cities globally are grappling with the negative externalities of car travel and are therefore striving to move towards a more sustainable urban transportation system. The introduction and popularity of new personal transport modes, such as e-scooters and electric bicycles, could potentially accelerate this transition as they become more commonplace and are accepted into regulatory frameworks. The integration of these new modes and vehicles into public transport systems, for example, could enhance accessibility and lead to potential modal shifts away from private car use. In order to assess the potential for change that micromobility holds, it is key to study these new modes in the context of access and egress trips to and from public transport. This paper presents an extensive systematic literature review of studies that focus specifically on the integration of micromobility and public transport systems and is, to the knowledge of the authors, the first review focusing on this specific aspect of micromobility. This paper offers an understanding of how this topic has been studied to date, which factors and aspects have been considered and analysed, which causalities have been identified in the research, in addition to identifying gaps in the literature and providing guidance for future research on this topic. Furthermore, this paper provides a comprehensive collection and critical discussion of suggestions and recommendations included in the literature which are analysed in this study, aimed at improving and further promoting the effective integration of micromobility and public transport services.
    Scopus© Citations 133  245
  • Publication
    Examining Smarter Travel Options to Reduce Emissions
    (Environmental Protection Agency, 2017-07) ; ;
    This deliverable explores a strategy to encourage a realistic modal shift from the private car to sustainable travel modes such as walking, cycling, bus, rail and smarter modes like carpooling and car-sharing in the Greater Dublin Area (GDA). This research is a large component of the work that has been conducted as part of the Greening Transport project. It examines the responsiveness of a sample to a range of policy measures aiming to incentivise sustainable commuting practices to work and education in the GDA. By means of a stated preference (SP) experiment, a selection of policies was tested in various hypothetical scenarios in order to gauge their response in terms of travel behaviour change, ultimately quantified by analysing the potential modal shift. This technical report will assess relevant literature on this subject and delineate the experimental design, survey creation process and most importantly delve into the discrete-choice modelling results and analysis of this study. Motivation for this work was taken from comparable experiments from leading researchers in the field of SP and discrete-choice modelling. However, an approach such as this has to date not been conducted in the context of Ireland. This presents an opportunity to gain a greater understanding of the behavioural outcomes of implementing various sustainable transport policy incentives from which a modal shift can be achieved in Ireland. The aims of this research are in line with those set-out by the Greening Transport project that is leading this work - exploring ways of promoting smarter travel options as a means of attaining emissions savings and mitigating the associated causes of climate change such as air pollution, burning of fossil fuels and noise pollution in urban areas. However, one of the principal goals of this study is to incentivise "car shedding" behaviour, i.e. promoting a reduction in car usage by making alternative and sustainable travel modes more practical and competitive in terms of time and cost amongst other attributes, in addition to being equally or more convenient modes than driving a car alone. A SP survey instrument was implemented to gather responses to a range of hypothetical scenarios, in addition to other revealed preference (current travel activity), attitudinal and socio-demographic questions to generate various types of data for analysis. The main SP component of the survey was utilised to determine the variables of statistical significance that increase or decrease the utility of the modes and predict or forecast behavioural responses and implications, in the form of direct and cross elasticities and "what if" simulations, to various policy instruments ("carrots") included in the stated choice scenario.
  • Publication
    Examining the potential for car-shedding in the Greater Dublin Area
    A free version of this paper is available at: the 26th December.  This paper examines the receptivity of a sample of commuters within the Greater Dublin Area (GDA) to a range of policy incentives that encourage travellers to make more sustainable usage of their private car. Several policy measures are evaluated to identify a means of stimulating a shift from single occupancy vehicle (SOV) use to modes that make sustainable usage of the car, namely carpooling and car-sharing. Consequently, an indication of increased levels of ¿car-shedding¿ in the GDA is ascertained. Behavioural indicators such as market elasticities and simulation models are estimated from multinomial logit (MNL) modelling of choices from a stated preference (SP) survey. The analysis determined that reductions in the modal share of SOVs of up to 8% in a ¿best case scenario¿, could be achieved if policies are put in place to reduce the time and cost attributes of commuting to work by carpooling and car-sharing. Furthermore, a 1% change in the convenience, time and cost attributes yielded a direct effect or increase in the probability of carpooling and car-sharing being chosen, of up to 0.34%, suggesting that the carpool and car-share modes may be relatively elastic to attribute changes. A comparison of means analysis of other survey data is also included in this paper. Ultimately, this paper offers support to the argument that greater investment in policy incentives alone is worth considering in order to increase the occupancy of vehicles commuting to work and education.
      319Scopus© Citations 22
  • Publication
    Encouraging sustainable commuting behaviour through smart policy provision: a stated preference mode-choice experiment in the Greater Dublin Area
    (Irish Transport Research Network, 2017-08-29) ; ;
    This paper explores the results of a stated preference (SP) experiment used to test the impact of policy incentives on commuting modal choice in the Greater Dublin Area (GDA). As a method of encouraging 'car-shedding' behaviour, various policy tools that improve the time, cost and convenience trip attributes of carpooling and car-sharing are examined. These measures are assessed in the literature as an empirical strategy of influencing a shift from single occupancy vehicle (SOV) use to more sustainable usage of the private car, such as carpooling and car-sharing. The SP experiment acts as an effective policy appraisal tool by analysing the behavioural responses to hypothetical choice scenarios and identifying the impact of policy incentives on modal share and choice probabilities. As a result of the analysis presented in this paper, an indication of the potential levels of 'car-shedding' in the GDA is determined. The discrete choice multinomial logit (MNL) findings suggested that a reduction in the modal share of SOVs of up to 8% could be realised given the policy implementation recommended. In addition to this, a 1% change in the time, cost and convenience attributes dictated an increase of up to 0.34% in the probability of carpooling and car-sharing being chosen. This paper provides weight to the argument that additional funding assigned to policy incentives alone is an effective strategy in reducing the number of commuters driving alone to work or education.