Now showing 1 - 10 of 35
  • Publication
    Cognitive Residues of Similarity: 'After-Effects' of Similarity Computations in Visual Search
    What are the 'cognitive after-effects' of making a similarity judgement? What, cognitively, is left behind and what effect might these residues have on subsequent processing? In this paper, we probe for such after-effects using a visual searcht ask, performed after a task in which pictures of real-world objects were compared. So, target objects were first presented in a comparison task (e.g., rate the similarity of this object to another) thus, presumably, modifying some of their features before asking people to visually search for the same object in complex scenes (with distractors and camouflaged backgrounds). As visual search is known to be influenced by the features of target objects, then any after effects of the comparison task should be revealed insubsequent visual searches. Results showed that when people previously rated an object as being high on a scale(e.g., colour similarity or general similarity) then visual search is inhibited (slower RTs and more saccades in eye tracking)relative to an object being rated as low in the same scale. There was also some evidence that different comparison tasks (e.g., compare on colour or compare on general similarity) have differential effects on visual search.
  • Publication
    Helping News Editors Write Better Headlines: A Recommender to Improve the Keyword Contents and Shareability of News Headlines
    We present a software tool that employs state-of- the-art natural language processing (NLP) and ma- chine learning techniques to help newspaper editors compose effective headlines for online publication. The system identifies the most salient keywords in a news article and ranks them based on both their overall popularity and their direct relevance to the article. The system also uses a supervised regres- sion model to identify headlines that are likely to be widely shared on social media. The user inter- face is designed to simplify and speed the editor’s decision process on the composition of the head- line. As such, the tool provides an efficient way to combine the benefits of automated predictors of engagement and search-engine optimization (SEO) with human judgments of overall headline quality.
  • Publication
    Triangulating Surprise: Expectations, Uncertainty, and Making Sense
    (Cognitive Science Society and Curran Associates, Inc., 2014-07-26) ; ; ;
    Surprise is a ubiquitous phenomenon that both draws on cognition and affects cognition, in a number of different ways. For example, in artificial intelligence an agent in a changing and imperfectly-known environment has been argued to need a surprise mechanism to survive. This symposium brings together researchers in education, computer science, cognitive psychology, and business to explore the relationship between surprise and cognition, and how it might be harnessed across domains. We will open with a touchstone challenge: How can surprising information be recruited to promote learning? (Munnich & Ranney) Then we will explore several perspectives on surprise, ranging from violation of expectations created through repetition (Loewenstein) to a focus on the information content of surprising events (Maguire & Maguire), to the apparently conflicting roles surprise may play in judgment (May, Smith-Rodden, & Ash). Our final speakers (Foster & Keane) will synthesize these approaches, and present a broad framework for future research on surprise within the cognitive sciences.
  • Publication
    The effect of soft, modal and loud voice levels on entrainment in noisy conditions
    Conversation partners have a tendency to adapt their vocal intensity to each other and to other social and environmental factors. A socially adequate vocal intensity level by a speech synthesiser that goes beyond mere volume adjustment is highly desirable for a rewarding and successful human-machine or machine mediated human-human interaction. This paper examines the interaction of the Lombard effect and speaker entrainment in a controlled experiment conducted with a confederate interlocutor. The interlocutor was asked to maintain either a soft, a modal or a loud voice level during the dialogues. Through half of the trials, subjects were exposed to a cocktail party noise through headphones. The analytical results suggest that both the background noise and the interlocutors voice level affect the dynamics of speaker entrainment. Speakers appear to still entrain to the voice level of their interlocutor in noisy conditions, though to a lesser extent, as strategies of ensuring intelligibility affect voice levels as well. These findings could be leveraged in spoken dialogue systems and speech generating devices to help choose a vocal effort level for the synthetic voice that is both intelligible and socially suited to a specific interaction.
  • Publication
    Re-reading the Ryan report: Witnessing via close and distant reading
    (Irish-American Cultural Institute, 2017-10-04) ; ;
    In the days following the publication of the Final Report of the Commission to Inquire into Child Abuse (2009), also known as the Ryan Report, there was widespread national and international public reaction to the conclusions of the report that over the course of nine decades abuse had been severe and systemic in the Irish residential-institution system for children run by the religious congregations of the Catholic church.
      493Scopus© Citations 7
  • Publication
    Modeling and Predicting News Consumption on Twitter
    Relatively little is known about the news consumption amongst social media users, despite the proliferation of news sharing, distribution platforms and news aggregators. In this paper, we present the Twitter News Model (TNM), a computational data-driven approach to elucidate the dynamics of news consumption on Twitter. We apply the TNM to a dataset of interactions between users and journalists/ newspapers to reveal what drives users’ consumption of news on Twitter, and predictively relate users’ news beliefs, motivations, and attitudes to their consumption of news.
  • Publication
    MAAP Annotate: When archaeology meets augmented reality for annotation of megalithic art
    Megalithic art is a spectacular form of symbolic representation found on prehistoric monuments. Carved by Europe’s first farmers, this art allows an insight into the creativity and vision of prehistoric communities. As examples of this art continue to fade, it is increasingly important to document and study these symbols. This paper presents MAAP Annotate, a Mixed Reality annotation tool from the Megalithic Art Analysis Project (MAAP). It provides an innovative method of interacting with megalithic art, combining cross-disciplinary research in digital heritage, 3D scanning and imaging, and augmented reality. The development of the tool is described, alongside the results of an evaluation carried out on a group of archaeologists from University College Dublin, Ireland. It is hoped that such tools will enable archaeologists to collaborate worldwide, and nonspecialists to experience and learn about megalithic art.
      561Scopus© Citations 8
  • Publication
    Creativity: A Gap Analysis
    Arguably, our current understanding of creativity has a few gaps that might benefit from some analysis. In the paper, I review the main empirical findings and theoretical proposals on the core cognitive processes of creative thinking, outlining some of the deficiencies therein. I then develop a meta-analysis of the interactions between the main components of the creative universe; namely, the World, Language and Experience. In this analysis, I try to show that creativity often emerges at the interstices between some aspect of the World and our Experience (our understanding of the World), or some aspect of the World and Language (our linguistic descriptions of that World), or some aspect our Experience and Language. To demonstrate these points, I use this analysis to explain the emergence of extreme literary creativity in Ireland at the turn of the last century. More generally, it is hoped that this analysis offers a new perspective on all aspects of creativity and how they might be approached.
  • Publication
    Surprise! You've Got Some Explaining to Do...
    (Cognitive Science Society, 2013-08-03) ;
    Why are some events more surprising than others? We propose that events that are more difficult to explain are those that are more surprising. The two experiments reported here test the impact of different event outcomes (Outcome-Type) and task demands (Task) on ratings of surprise for simple story scenarios. For the Outcome-Type variable, participants saw outcomes that were either knownor less-knownsurprising outcomes for each scenario. For the Task variable, participants either answered comprehension questions or provided an explanation of the outcome. Outcome-Type reliably affected surprise judgments; known outcomes were rated as less surprising than less-known outcomes. Task also reliably affected surprise judgments; when people provided an explanation it lowered surprise judgments relative to simply answering comprehension questions. Both experiments thus provide evidence on this less-explored explanation aspect of surprise, specifically showing that ease of explanation is a key factor in determining the level of surprise experienced
  • Publication
    The Illusionary Comfort of a Warm Normative Theory
    (Cognition, Language and Perception Research Group, 2017-11-24)
    One of the most common tactics in Cognitive Science is the wholesale adoption of anexisting normative account as a theoretical basis for understanding some aspect ofhuman cognition or, indeed, as a yardstick for correct behaviour (see e.g., Eysenck & Keane, 1995, 2015). Research on the psychology of deduction (Johnson-Laird, 1999;Johnson-Laird & Byrne, 1991; Evans, Newstead & Byrne, 1993; Oaksford & Chater,1998, 2007) has some of the most well-known examples of this tactic, where logicismhas argued that human thinking (1) reflects some internalized form of extensional,classical logic and (2) should be measured against classical logic as a normativesystem (Elquyam & Evans, 2011, pp. 234). Similarly, Oaksford & Chater (2007)advance Bayesian probability theory as a normative account of human rationality,though many disagree (Jones & Love, 2011; Bowers & Davis, 2012).