Now showing 1 - 9 of 9
  • Publication
    Submission to Public Consultation on research topics on collaborative research by ESRI and Department of Housing, Planning Community & Local Government
    (Department of Housing, Planning and Local Government, 2017-05) ; ; ; ; ;
    This submission is in response to a call for suggested topics for collaborative research to meet current challenges related to housing. The invitation for submissions gives examples (demographics, rental market price changes, credit markets and housing supply) however, the range of topics listed below indicates the broader opportunities for strategic research and, more importantly, the range of research areas that are key to housing policy, design and delivery where research is not currently being carried out.
  • Publication
    Air Pollution Abatement Performances of Green Infrastructure in Open Road and Built-up Street Canyon Environments - A Review
    Intensifying the proportion of urban green infrastructure has been considered as one of the remedies for air pollution levels in cities, yet the impact of numerous vegetation types deployed in different built environments has to be fully synthesised and quantified. This review examined published literature on neighbourhood air quality modifications by green interventions. Studies were evaluated that discussed personal exposure to local sources of air pollution under the presence of vegetation in open road and built-up street canyon environments. Further, we critically evaluated the available literature to provide a better understanding of the interactions between vegetation and surrounding built-up environments and ascertain means of reducing local air pollution exposure using green infrastructure. The net effects of vegetation in each built-up environment are also summarised and possible recommendations for the future design of green infrastructure are proposed. In a street canyon environment, high-level vegetation canopies (trees) led to a deterioration in air quality, while low-level green infrastructure (hedges) improved air quality conditions. For open road conditions, wide, low porosity and tall vegetation leads to downwind pollutant reductions while gaps and high porosity vegetation could lead to no improvement or even deteriorated air quality. The review considers that generic recommendations can be provided for vegetation barriers in open road conditions. Green walls and roofs on building envelopes can also be used as effective air pollution abatement measures. The critical evaluation of the fundamental concepts and the amalgamation of key technical features of past studies by this review could assist urban planners to design and implement green infrastructures in the built environment.
      372Scopus© Citations 482
  • Publication
    Towards an operationalisation of nature-based solutions for natural hazards
    Nature-based solutions (NBS) are being promoted as adaptive measures against predicted increasing hydrome-teorological hazards (HMHs), such as heatwaves andfloods which have already caused significant loss of life andeconomic damage across the globe. However, the underpinning factors such as policy framework, end-users' in-terests and participation for NBS design and operationalisation are yet to be established. We discuss theoperationalisation and implementation processes of NBS by means of a novel concept of Open-Air Laboratories(OAL) for its wider acceptance. The design and implementation of environmentally, economically, technicallyand socio-culturally sustainable NBS require inter- and transdisciplinary approaches which could be achievedby fostering co-creation processes by engaging stakeholders across various sectors and levels, inspiring more ef-fective use of skills, diverse knowledge, manpower and resources, and connecting and harmonising the adapta-tion aims. The OAL serves as a benchmark for NBS upscaling, replication and exploitation in policy-makingprocess through monitoring byfield measurement, evaluation by key performance indicators and buildingsolid evidence on their short- and long-term multiple benefits in different climatic, environmental and socio-economic conditions, thereby alleviating the challenges of political resistance,financial barriers and lack ofknowledge. We conclude that holistic management of HMHs by effective use of NBS can be achieved with stan-dard compliant data for replicating and monitoring NBS in OALs, knowledge about policy silos and interaction be-tween research communities and end-users. Further research is needed for multi-risk analysis of HMHs andinclusion of NBS into policy frameworks, adaptable at local, regional and national scales leading to modificationin the prevalent guidelines related to HMHs. Thefindings of this work can be used for developing synergies be-tween current policy frameworks, scientific research and practical implementation of NBS in Europe and beyondfor its wider acceptance.
      133Scopus© Citations 57
  • Publication
    Future Water Vulnerability in Ireland: An Integrated Water Resources, Climate and Land Use Changes Model
    Water resources management and policies need to consider the dynamic nature of any catchment’s water balance, particularly in planning stage, to develop effective strategies for the future. The main goal of this research is to create an innovative and integrated environmental modelling tool (GEOCWB) by applying Machine Learning Techniques to a Geographic Information system (GIS). The developed tool uses as test and validation case the trans-boundary Shannon river basin. Climate change projections for the Shannon River catchment are simulated and presented using GEO-CWB for several climate variables from multi-GCM ensembles for three future time intervals using a range of different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). As part of the integrated environmental modelling approach, the future spatially distributed urban expansion scenarios and land use changes for Shannon river basin are simulated and presented based on realistic land cover change models and projected to several time intervals. This is achieved using a hybrid modelling technique combining a logistic regression and a cellular automata (CA) model for developing spatial patterns of urban expansion. The research presented here provides an appropriate methodology for long-term changes analysis in European trans-boundary river’s water level and streamflow parameters after using a customized GISbased algorithm to simplify the hydrological system. GEO-CWB provides an integrated GIS tool for modelling potential evapotranspiration on the catchment scale. The GEO-CWB tool has been developed to help and support water sector modellers, planners, and decision makers to simulate and predict future spatially distributed dynamic water balances using a GIS environment at a catchment scale in response to the future change in climate variables and land use. Several Machine Learning Techniques are applied on the outcomes of the GEO-CWB model for the Shannon River in order to model and predict the water level and streamflow parameters for some stations along the river for daily time steps.
  • Publication
    Passive Control Systems for Improving Air Quality in Urban Street Canyons: The Origins, Current State of Art and Next Steps
    Strategies to improve urban air quality have primarily focused on reducing emissions through campaigning for green alternative modes of transport and improving the efficiency.
  • Publication
    Tutti pazzi per l'ammonia
    This is a comic aimed at children from the age of eight upwards. It highlights impacts from ammonia in agriculture, plus sources and solutions to the problem.
  • Publication
    Audio noise mapping in virtual urban simulations : enhancing public awareness
    (Turkish Acoustical Association, 2007-08) ; ;
    One of the key difficulties with urban environmental noise mapping is disseminating results from noise studies in a manner that is easily understood by the general public. Indeed, it is one of the requirements of the Environmental Noise Directive (END) that information from noise studies is disseminated to the general public so that awareness of environmental noise issues is increased. This paper presents preliminary work undertaken to integrate results from environmental noise studies into a virtual sound environment. The model uses appropriate sound mixing techniques to integrate background sound from prediction software while direct sound is integrated from appropriate sound samples. In the virtual environment sound is output using audio rendering and clustering techniques which take account of the position of the individual in the virtual environment. The model demonstrates the possibility of using virtual urban simulations as a framework for evaluating the environmental and visual impact of major urban developments particularly in terms of the impact on the surrounding urban soundscape. In addition, the model framework may be used as a demonstration method whereby the sensitivity of the urban sound environment to different traffic management scenarios is presented to urban inhabitants.
  • Publication
    A review of hydro-meteorological hazard, vulnerability, and risk assessment frameworks and indicators in the context of nature-based solutions
    Nature-based solutions (NBS) are increasingly being implemented as suitable approaches for reducing vulnerability and risk of social-ecological systems (SES) to hydro-meteorological hazards. Understanding vulnerability and risk of SES is crucial in order to design and implement NBS projects appropriately. A systematic literature review was carried out to examine the suitability of, or gaps in, existing frameworks for vulnerability and risk assessment of SES to hydro-meteorological hazards. The review confirms that very few frameworks have been developed in the context of NBS. Most of the frameworks have emphasised social systems over ecological systems. Furthermore, they have not explicitly considered the temporal dimension of risk reduction measures. The study proposes an indicator-based vulnerability and risk assessment framework in the context of NBS (VR-NBS) that addresses both the above limitations and considers established NBS principles. The framework aims to allow for a better consideration of the multiple benefits afforded by NBS and which impact all the dimensions of risk. A list of 135 indicators is identified through literature review and surveys in NBS project sites. This list is composed of indicators representing the social sub-system (61% of total indicators) and the ecological sub-system (39% of total indicators). The list will act as a reference indicator library in the context of NBS projects and will be regularly updated as lessons are learnt. While the proposed VR-NBS framework is developed considering hydro-meteorological hazards and NBS, it can be adapted for other natural hazards and different types of risk reduction measures.
      169Scopus© Citations 34
  • Publication
    Spatially distributed potential evapotranspiration modeling and climate projections
    Evapotranspiration integrates energy and mass transfer between the Earth's surface and atmosphere and is the most active mechanism linking the atmosphere, hydrosphsophere, lithosphere and biosphere. This study focuses on the fine resolution modeling and projection of spatially distributed potential evapotranspiration on the large catchment scale as response to climate change. Six potential evapotranspiration designed algorithms, systematically selected based on a structured criteria and data availability, have been applied and then validated to long-term mean monthly data for the Shannon River catchment with a 50 m2 cell size. The best validated algorithm was therefore applied to evaluate the possible effect of future climate change on potential evapotranspiration rates. Spatially distributed potential evapotranspiration projections have been modeled based on climate change projections from multi-GCM ensembles for three future time intervals (2020, 2050 and 2080) using a range of different Representative Concentration Pathways producing four scenarios for each time interval. Finally, seasonal results have been compared to baseline results to evaluate the impact of climate change on the potential evapotranspiration and therefor on the catchment dynamical water balance. The results present evidence that the modeled climate change scenarios would have a significant impact on the future potential evapotranspiration rates. All the simulated scenarios predicted an increase in potential evapotranspiration for each modeled future time interval, which would significantly affect the dynamical catchment water balance. This study addresses the gap in the literature of using GIS-based algorithms to model fine-scale spatially distributed potential evapotranspiration on the large catchment systems based on climatological observations and simulations in different climatological zones. Providing fine-scale potential evapotranspiration data is very crucial to assess the dynamical catchment water balance to setup management scenarios for the water abstractions. This study illustrates a transferable systematic method to design GIS-based algorithms to simulate spatially distributed potential evapotranspiration on the large catchment systems.
      164Scopus© Citations 41