Now showing 1 - 4 of 4
  • Publication
    Cyclophilin function in Cancer; lessons from virus replication
    (Bentham Science Publishers, 2015-05) ;
    Cyclophilins belong to a group of proteins that possess peptidyl prolyl isomerase activity and catalyse the cis-trans conversion of proline peptide bonds. Cyclophilin members play important roles in protein folding and as molecular chaperones, in addition to a well-established role as host factors required for completion of the virus life cycle. Members of the cyclophilin family are overexpressed in a range of human malignancies including hepatocellular cancer, pancreatic cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer and glioblastoma multiforme, however, their precise role in tumourigenesis remains unclear. In recent years, mounting evidence supports a role for prolyl isomerisation during mammalian cell division; a process with striking similarity to plasma membrane remodelling during virus replication. Here we will summarise our current understanding of the role of cyclophilins in cancer. We will review the function of cyclophilins during mammalian cell division and during HIV-1 infection, and highlight common processes involving members of the ESCRT and Rab GTPase families
    Scopus© Citations 11  786
  • Publication
    Activation of the c-Jun NH2 terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway is essential during PBOX-6-induced apoptosis in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cells
    (American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2002-05-24) ; ; ;
    The mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family is activated in response to a wide variety of external stress signals such as UV irradiation, heat shock, and many chemotherapeutic drugs and leads to the induction of apoptosis. A novel series of pyrrolo-1,5-benzoxazepines have been shown to potently induce apoptosis in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cells, which are resistant to many chemotherapeutic agents. In this study we have delineated part of the mechanism by which a representative compound known as PBOX-6 induces apoptosis. We have investigated whether PBOX-6 induces activation of MAP kinase signaling pathways in CML cells. Treatment of K562 cells with PBOX-6 resulted in the transient activation of two JNK isoforms, JNK1 and JNK2. In contrast, PBOX-6 did not activate the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) or p38. Apoptosis was found to occur independently of the small GTPases Ras, Rac, and Cdc42 but involved phosphorylation of the JNK substrates, c-Jun and ATF-2. Pretreatment of K562 cells with the JNK inhibitor, dicoumarol, abolished PBOX-6-induced phosphorylation of c-Jun and ATF-2 and inhibited the induced apoptosis, suggesting that JNK activation is an essential component of the apoptotic pathway induced by PBOX-6. Consistent with this finding, transfection of K562 cells with the JNK scaffold protein, JIP-1, inhibited JNK activity and apoptosis induced by PBOX-6. JIP-1 specifically scaffolds JNK, MKK7, and members of the mixed-lineage kinase (MLK) family, implicating these kinases upstream of JNK in the apoptotic pathway induced by PBOX-6 in K562 cells.
      223Scopus© Citations 39
  • Publication
    Targeting the Mitotic Catastrophe Signaling Pathway in Cancer
    (Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2015)
    Mitotic catastrophe, as defined in 2012 by the International Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death, is a bona fide intrinsic oncosuppressive mechanism that senses mitotic failure and responds by driving a cell to an irreversible antiproliferative fate of death or senescence. Thus, failed mitotic catastrophe can promote the unrestrained growth of defective cells, thereby representing a major gateway to tumour development. Furthermore, the activation of mitotic catastrophe offers significant therapeutic advantage which has been exploited in the action of conventional and targeted anticancer agents. Yet, despite its importance in tumour prevention and treatment, the molecular mechanism of mitotic catastrophe is not well understood. A better understanding of the signals that determine cell fate following failed or defective mitosis will reveal new opportunities to selectively target and enhance the programme for therapeutic benefit and reveal biomarkers to predict patient response. This review is focused on the molecular mechanism of mitotic catastrophe induction and signalling and highlights current strategies to exploit the process in cancer therapy.
    Scopus© Citations 148  423
  • Publication
    A comparison of methods for the isolation and separation of extracellular vesicles from protein and lipid particles in human serum
    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nano-sized vesicles containing nucleic acid and protein cargo that are released from a multitude of cell types and have gained significant interest as potential diagnostic biomarkers. Human serum is a rich source of readily accessible EVs; however, the separation of EVs from serum proteins and non-EV lipid particles represents a considerable challenge. In this study, we compared the most commonly used isolation techniques, either alone or in combination, for the isolation of EVs from 200 µl of human serum and their separation from non-EV protein and lipid particles present in serum. The size and yield of particles isolated by each method was determined by nanoparticle tracking analysis, with the variation in particle size distribution being used to determine the relative impact of lipoproteins and protein aggregates on the isolated EV population. Purification of EVs from soluble protein was determined by calculating the ratio of EV particle count to protein concentration. Finally, lipoprotein particles co-isolated with EVs was determined by Western blot analysis of lipoprotein markers APOB and APOE. Overall, this study reveals that the choice of EV isolation procedure significantly impacts EV yield from human serum, together with the presence of lipoprotein and protein contaminants.
      457Scopus© Citations 409