Now showing 1 - 7 of 7
  • Publication
    Mechanisms of calcineurin inhibitor nephrotoxicity in chronic allograft injury
    The first successful transplantation of a human kidney was performed more than 50 years ago by Murray and colleagues in 1954 between identical twins. The success of this transplantation was due to the fact that no significant rejection occurs between genetically identical twins and therefore immunosuppression was not necessary in this particular case (Merrill et al., 1956). However, solid-organ transplantation could not be considered truly successful until the 1970’s after significant technical and pharmacological advances. In particular, the discovery and development of the calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) has made allograft transplantation routinely successful with greatly reduced risk of acute rejection. In the absence of pharmacological agents to address the primary pathological mechanisms involved, renal transplantation has now been the standard management of end stage renal failure for the past four decades (Wolfe et al., 1999). Short-term renal allograft and allograft recipient survival rates have increased significantly during the last decade largely due to improved patient monitoring. However, allograft half-life beyond 1 year post-transplant remains largely unchanged. While rates of early allograft failure have significantly reduced, late renal allograft dysfunction remains a significant problem in the transplant population (de Fijter). Chronic allograft injury (CAI) is the most prevalent cause of allograft dysfunction in the first decade after transplantation. The term CAI is used to describe deterioration of renal allograft function and structure due to immunological processes (i.e. chronic rejection) and/or a range of simultaneous nonimmunological factors such as CNI-induced nephrotoxicity, hypertension and infection. This chapter will outline the pathophysiology and etiology of CAI and the role that CNI nephrotoxicity plays in this disease process. It will also review experimental studies that have identified important molecular mechanisms involved and discuss strategies utilised to minimise the development and progression of CAI.
  • Publication
    The Role of MAPK in Drug-Induced Kidney Injury
    This paper focuses on the role that mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) play in drug-induced kidney injury. The MAPKs, of which there are four major classes (ERK, p38, JNK, and ERK5/BMK), are signalling cascades which have been found to be broadly conserved across a wide variety of organisms. MAPKs allow effective transmission of information from the cell surface to the cytosolic or nuclear compartments. Cross talk between the MAPKs themselves and with other signalling pathways allows the cell to modulate responses to a wide variety of external stimuli. The MAPKs have been shown to play key roles in both mediating and ameliorating cellular responses to stress including xenobiotic-induced toxicity. Therefore, this paper will discuss the specific role of the MAPKs in the kidney in response to injury by a variety of xenobiotics and the potential for therapeutic intervention at the level of MAPK signalling across different types of kidney disease.
  • Publication
    Genes expression profiling of alveolar macrophages exposed to non-functionalized, anionic and cationic multi-walled carbon nanotubes shows three different mechanisms of toxicity
    Functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) have become the focus of increased research interest, particularly in their application as tools in different areas, such as the biomedical field. Despite the benefits associated with functionalization of MWCNT, particularly in overcoming issues relating to solubility, several studies have demonstrated that these functionalized nanoparticles display different toxicity profiles. For this study, we aim to compare NR8383 cells responses to three well-characterized MWCNT with varying functional groups. This study employed cytotoxicity assays, transcriptomics and proteomics to assess their toxicity using NR8383 rat alveolar macrophages as an in vitro model. The study findings indicated that all MWCNT altered ribosomal protein translation, cytoskeleton arrangement and induced pro-inflammatory response. Only functionalized MWCNT alter mTOR signaling pathway in conjunction with increased Lamtor gene expression. Furthermore, the type of functionalization was also important, with cationic MWCNT activating the transcription factor EB and inducing autophagy while the anionic MWCNT altering eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 (EIF4) and phosphoprotein 70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) signaling pathway as well as upregulation Tlr2 gene expression. This study proposes that MWCNT toxicity mechanisms are functionalization dependent and provides evidence that inflammatory response is a key event of carbon nanotubes toxicity.
      134Scopus© Citations 16
  • Publication
    An Integrative Computational Approach for a Prioritization of Key Transcription Regulators Associated With Nanomaterial-Induced Toxicity
    A rapid increase of new nanomaterial products poses new challenges for their risk assessment. Current traditional methods for estimating potential adverse health effect of nanomaterials (NMs) are complex, time consuming and expensive. In order to develop new prediction tests for nanotoxicity evaluation, a systems biology approach and data from high-throughput omics experiments can be used. We present a computational approach that combines reverse engineering techniques, network analysis and pathway enrichment analysis for inferring the transcriptional regulation landscape and its functional interpretation. To illustrate this approach, we used published transcriptomic data derived from mice lung tissue exposed to carbon nanotubes (NM-401 and NRCWE-26). Because fibrosis is the most common adverse effect of these NMs, we included in our analysis the data for bleomycin (BLM) treatment, which is a well-known fibrosis inducer. We inferred gene regulatory networks for each NM and BLM to capture functional hierarchical regulatory structures between genes and their regulators. Despite the different nature of the lung injury caused by nanoparticles and BLM, we identified several conserved core regulators for all agents. We reason that these regulators can be considered as early predictors of toxic responses after NMs exposure. This integrative approach, which refines traditional methods of transcriptomic analysis, can be useful for prioritization of potential core regulators and generation of new hypothesis about mechanisms of nanoparticles toxicity.
      397Scopus© Citations 6
  • Publication
    Identification of β2-microglobulin as a urinary biomarker for chronic allograft nephropathy using proteomic methods
    Chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN) remains the leading cause of renal graft loss after the first year following renal transplantation. This study aimed to identify novel urinary proteomic profiles, which could distinguish and predict CAN in susceptible individuals. Experimental Design: The study included 34 renal transplant patients with histologically proven CAN and 36 patients with normal renal transplant function. High-throughput proteomic profiles were generated from urine samples with three different ProteinChip arrays by surface-enhanced laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS). Following SELDI a biomarker pattern software analysis was performed which led to the identification of a novel biomarker pattern that could distinguish patients with CAN from those with normal renal function. Results: An 11.7 kDa protein identified as β2 microglobulin was the primary protein of this biomarker pattern, distinguishing CAN from control patients (ROC = 0.996). SELDI-TOF-MS comparison of purified β2 microglobulin protein and CAN urine demonstrated identical 11.7 kDa protein peaks. Significantly higher concentrations of β2 microglobulin were found in the urine of patients with CAN compared to the urine of normal renal function transplant recipients (p<0.001). Conclusions and clinical relevance: Whilst further validation in a larger more diverse patient population is required to determine if this β2 microglobulin protein biomarker will provide a potential means of diagnosing CAN by non-invasive methods in a clinical setting, this study clearly shows a capability to stratify control and disease patients.
      962Scopus© Citations 20
  • Publication
    Nanoparticles Can Wrap Epithelial Cell Membranes and Relocate Them Across the Epithelial Cell Layer
    Although the link between the inhalation of nanoparticles and cardiovascular disease is well established, the causal pathway between nanoparticle exposure and increased activity of blood coagulation factors remains unexplained. To initiate coagulation tissue factor bearing epithelial cell membranes should be exposed to blood, on the other side of the less than a micrometre thin air-blood barrier. For the inhaled nanoparticles to promote coagulation, they need to bind lung epithelial-cell membrane parts and relocate them into the blood. To assess this hypothesis, we use advanced microscopy and spectroscopy techniques to show that the nanoparticles wrap themselves with epithelial-cell membranes, leading to the membrane's disruption. The membrane-wrapped nanoparticles are then observed to freely diffuse across the damaged epithelial cell layer relocating epithelial cell membrane parts over the epithelial layer. Proteomic analysis of the protein content in the nanoparticles wraps/corona finally reveals the presence of the coagulation-initiating factors, supporting the proposed causal link between the inhalation of nanoparticles and cardiovascular disease.
      137Scopus© Citations 16
  • Publication
    Platelet-Derived Microparticles From Obese Individuals: Characterization of Number, Size, Proteomics, and Crosstalk With Cancer and Endothelial Cells
    Rationale: Obesity is a risk factor for atherothrombosis and various cancers. However, the mechanisms are not yet completely clarified. Objectives: We aimed to verify whether the microparticles (MPs) released from thrombin-activated platelets differed in obese and non-obese women for number, size, and proteomics cargo and the capacity to modulate in vitro the expression of (i) genes related to the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the endothelial to mesenchymal transition (EndMT), and (ii) cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 involved in the production of angiogenic and inflammatory mediators. Methods and Results: MPs were obtained from thrombin activated platelets of four obese and their matched non-obese women. MPs were analyzed by cytofluorimeter and protein content by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. MPs from obese women were not different in number but showed increased heterogeneity in size. In obese individuals, MPs containing mitochondria (mitoMPs) expressed lower CD41 levels and increased phosphatidylserine associated with enhanced Factor V representing a signature of a prothrombotic state. Proteomics analysis identified 44 proteins downregulated and three upregulated in MPs obtained from obese vs. non-obese women. A reduction in the proteins of the α-granular membrane and those involved in mitophagy and antioxidant defenses-granular membrane was detected in the MPs of obese individuals. MPs released from platelets of obese individuals were more prone to induce the expression of marker genes of EMT and EndMT when incubated with human colorectal cancer cells (HT29) and human cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (HCMEC), respectively. A protein, highly enhanced in obese MPs, was the pro-platelet basic protein with pro-inflammatory and tumorigenic actions. Exclusively MPs from obese women induced COX-2 in HCMEC. Conclusion: Platelet-derived MPs of obese women showed higher heterogeneity in size and contained different levels of proteins relevant to thrombosis and tumorigenesis. MPs from obese individuals presented enhanced capacity to cause changes in the expression of EMT and EndMT marker genes and to induce COX-2. These effects might contribute to the increased risk for the development of thrombosis and multiple malignancies in obesity.
      284Scopus© Citations 33