Now showing 1 - 7 of 7
  • Publication
    Pennicks of Delgany
    (Mediateam, 2017-01-01)
    An extract in a local directory dating from 1910 provides a snapshot about Pennick and Co. They were nurserymen, landscape gardeners, forest planters and valuers located at Delgany, Co. Wicklow and were contactable by telephone at 1 Greystones and by telegram “Pennick, Delgany”‘.
  • Publication
    'Adding to the Food Supply': The Provision of Allotments in Early Twenthieth-Century Waterford
    (Waterford Archaeological and Historical Society, 2020-12)
    In January 1917 a motivating address in Waterford by the secretary of the Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction attracted lengthy reports in national and local newspapers. T.P. Gill’s address on food production and town allotments was reported in the Irish Times, Munster Express, Skibbereen Eagle and Derry Journal – from four corners of Ireland. He concluded his address by remarking, ‘I believe you will make this work here in 1 Waterford a success’. Drawing on newspaper and other reports, this article examines the development of allotments and the achievements of the Food Production Committee and plotholders in Waterford in 1917 and their continuation in subsequent years.
  • Publication
    Land Allotment Scheme in Cork city 1917-1923
    (Cork Historical and Archaeological Society, 2021-10-31)
    During World War 1, food supply was an issue not only in Cork but throughout Ireland. At that time, the urban population was dependent on imported foodstuffs. In January 1917, the Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction and the Local Government Board introduced a scheme to promote food production which included town allotments. The scheme provided for the acquisition of lands, instruction in allotment cultivation and loans for requisites, e.g. seed. Cork Corporation established an Allotments Committee, comprising local councillors and allotment holders. Each allotment site had its own committee. In each ward, land was rented or acquired compulsorily from local landowners. At the peak of the scheme, some 1000 allotments, distributed across the city and immediate environs, yielded annual produce per allotment valued at £10. Fixity of tenure, a significant issue for plotholders, eventually resulted in the Acquisition of Lands (Allotments) Act 1926. Though a war measure, the scheme continued until 1923.
  • Publication
    Urban Food Production in Irish Cities during World War 1
    (European Association for Urban History, 2018-09-01)
    In the early 20th century people in Ireland, particularly in urban areas, were dependent on imported food. Due to the First World War and an increasing threat posed by blockades at sea more ‘Home-grown food’ was required. The State and local voluntary organisations had already initiated programmes to promote small scale food production in cities in Ireland. In January 1917 the Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction (DATI) and the Local Government Board (LGB) introduced schemes to promote food production in Ireland, one of which was the promotion of allotments. The provisions were acquisition of land, loans to purchase seed, supply of requisites, and instruction for allotment holders. These provisions were implemented by city authorities in Dublin, Belfast, Cork, Waterford and Limerick. Those engaged in this small scale production were in casual labour, or employed as brewery workers, teachers, policemen, artisans, gardeners and other trades. Allotment holders formed local committees, which ran their allotment site and interacted with city authorities. Fixity of tenure was a main objective of their representative organisation, the Irish Plotholders’ Union which was formed in 1917. Potatoes and green vegetables such as onions, carrots and cabbage were cultivated. Contemporary horticulturists provided professional expertise and government officials and politicians attended events which acknowledged and supported the allotment movement. In 1917 an estimated 1875-2,000 ac (750-800 ha) valued at £150,000-£160,000 (€169,500-€180,800) were in cultivation and this figure rose to 2250 ac (910 ha) with a higher estimated value of £400,000 (€452,000) in 1918. Indirect benefits attributed to the allotments were improved health, manual exercise, a new pastime and social interaction. The sources for this research were documents from the DATI, contemporary reports in national and local newspapers and horticultural periodicals of the period.
  • Publication
    Street Tree Planting in 19th and early 20th century Dublin
    (The Society of Irish Foresters, 2019-12-30)
    Street trees have been part of the urban fabric of cities for centuries, from the streets of ancient Athens, the boulevards of Paris in the seventeenth century to the Thames Embankment in 1870s London. Mark Johnston, in his recent book Street Trees, has recorded the development of street tree planting in urban and suburban Victorian and Edwardian Britain (Johnson 2017). However, what of Ireland - Dublin in particular? The Dublin City Tree Strategy 2016 – 2020, published by Dublin City Council (2016), states that “In the historical development of the city, tree planting has been carried out to great effect and to the continued appreciation of its citizens and visitors. A review of older city maps and records indicates the use of tree planting in parks, streets and private lands”. However, little information from these maps and records has been published. Drawing on minutes of the Municipal Council of the City of Dublin and Pembroke Urban District Council, Irish newspaper reports, English horticultural journals and archival records, this paper examines street tree planting in late 19th and early 20th century Dublin city and suburbs.
  • Publication
    Introducing landscape design techniques to horticulture students
    (International Society for Horticultural Science, 2016) ; ; ;
    Students majoring in Horticulture Landscape and Sportsturf Management take an introductory module in Landscape Design. During a seven week period through a series of lectures, studio based graphic and design exercises, and site visits students are introduced to landscape design principles. Following an introduction to garden history each student prepares a precedent study based on the work of an international landscape designer. Furthermore, they must prepare a domestic or commercial landscape design plan. In the last academic year the class was invited to develop landscape design proposals for Beech Hill College in Monaghan. Ordnance survey maps of the site were obtained in preparation for the site visit and meeting with the School Principal who outlined the specific requirements. The students were sub-divided into three working groups and assigned a specific area of the school campus to survey and evaluate existing vegetation. Each student created design proposals, drew cross sections and a planting plan for their areas. At the end of the semester each student presented their work to peers, staff and the School Principal and was given immediate feedback. Student response to the project was highly positive and in comparison to previous years, the design proposals were suitable for implementation. Students participated in individual and group work, developed critical thinking skills, presentation skills, and all transferable skills required of university graduates. Engaging in a 'live' project for a school campus emphasised their contribution to a local community. The students have been invited to return and to further develop the site.
  • Publication
    ‘To further planting of trees’: Arbor Day in 20th century Ireland
    (Geographical Society of Ireland, 2018-05)
    Arbor Day, historically devoted to tree planting, connected people with trees and left a legacy for future generations. Reports in local and national newspapers describe Arbor Days in 20th century Ireland. They were organised by The Irish Forestry Society, 1904-1923; the Department of Lands 1935-1939 and Trees for Ireland 1950- 1984, two voluntary groups and a state sponsor, in co-operation with local authorities. While the aim was to promote afforestation, in time it fostered an interest in trees in rural and, more particularly, in urban communities, what is now known as urban forestry. Arbor Days followed a similar format with speeches by local politicians and clergy referencing the social, sometimes nationalistic role of trees, followed by tree planting by them and young people. The inculcation of a life-long interest in trees in young people was obvious in each period. Planting in school or college grounds, though evident throughout the periods under consideration, was most pronounced from 1935-1939. In the period 1952-1984, the sites selected in Dublin were located in developing suburbs or large public housing schemes. Arbor Day was adopted by local community groups who also organised tree planting. Arbor Day in Ireland mirrored Arbor Day in the US and Australia. There is little evidence to suggest that Arbor Day furthered afforestation. However, it was a valuable environmental and educational initiative in periods of political and economic change in 20th century Ireland. Arbor Day foreshadowed environmental initiatives current in 21st century Ireland and worldwide.
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