Now showing 1 - 4 of 4
  • Publication
    An Application of 3D Model Reconstruction and Augmented Reality for Real-Time Monitoring of Additive Manufacturing
    This paper presents a novel scan-based method for the real-time monitoring of additive manufacturing processes. Most traditional scanning techniques used for generating 3D models capture the only outer shape of the object after completion of the printing process. The method proposed in this paper differs as it relies on a layer-by-layer scanning of the 3D object directly during the printing process. This strategy has been successfully implemented with a fused filament 3D printer (PRUSA i3 MK3). Furthermore, in order to offer an increased interaction between the obtained 3D model and the user, a virtual environment has been developed for the augmented reality glasses HoloLens. The novelty of this method lies in the layer-by-layer 3D model reconstruction of both the outer shape and the inner layers of the printed part. It enables the user, directly during the printing process, to view and detect potential defects, not only at the surface but also in the inner layers of the printed object. Therefore, it can provide detailed information about the build quality and can be used as the basis of a decision-making tool.
      120Scopus© Citations 34
  • Publication
    I-nteract: A Cyber-Physical System for Real-Time Interaction With Physical and Virtual Objects Using Mixed Reality Technologies for Additive Manufacturing
    This paper presents I-nteract, a cyber-physical system that enables real-time interaction with real and virtual objects in a mixed reality environment to design 3D models for additive manufacturing. The system has been developed using mixed reality technologies such as HoloLens, for augmenting visual feedback, and haptic gloves, for augmenting haptic force feedback. The efficacy of the system has been demonstrated by generating a 3D model using a novel scanning method to 3D print a customized orthopedic cast for human arm, by estimating spring rates of compression springs, and by simulating interaction with a virtual spring in a mixed reality environment.
      292Scopus© Citations 13
  • Publication
    Design of an Immersive Human-Centric Cyber-Physical System for Additive Manufacturing
    (University College Dublin. School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, 2022) ;
    Despite tremendous promises, Additive Manufacturing (AM) still faces many challenges to matching the standards of conventional manufacturing and reaching its full potential in bridging the gap between the consumer, the designer, and the production. Driven by these challenges, the research and industry communities are focused on not only making 3D printing machines work better either by designing robust control strategies or by designing advanced monitoring methodologies, but also on developing new ways to enable enhanced human interactions in a feedback loop. In this thesis, we design an immersive human-centric cyber-physical system, named I-nteract, to provide a framework to develop intuitive and user-friendly interfaces that enable personal fabrication for non-technical users, streamline the AM process by allowing real-time testing of the designed 3D models, and provide effective means of monitoring the AM process to improve the build quality of the product. I-nteract is a Visio-Haptic Mixed Reality (VHMR) system that enables real-time processing of human-centered spatio-temporal data acquired by vision (HoloLens) sensors and wearable sensors (position sensors for hand & fingers tracking) to provide visual augmented reality feedback (via HoloLens) and force feedback (via haptic gloves) to enable human interaction with physical and virtual world simultaneously. We demonstrated the efficacy of our system by implementing novel practical applications to improve the AM workflow. We developed a novel scan-based method for the real-time monitoring of AM processes. With the incorporation of haptics within the MR system, we demonstrated how I-nteract allows real-time interactions with both digital and physical (deformable/non-deformable) objects simultaneously to streamline the AM process by enabling virtual testing phase prior to the manufacturing phase. We proposed a novel 3D scanning method and implemented this novel strategy to design a customised orthopaedic cast for a human forearm. We also implemented interactions with the deformable objects so that the user can capture the elasticity along with the shape of a physical object to generate and simulate its digital twin. Furthermore, we introduced generative functionalities in the design phase of the AM workflow by using Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG) and integrating Deep Learning (DL) within the system to automate the parts of the design process that require expert knowledge. We tested the system with two types of generative Deep Neural Network (DNN)s to design customised 3D models of chairs and tables from their respective single-view 2D images captured via HoloLens, and by resizing the 3D models using hands in an MR environment with respect to the design constraints imposed by the physical workspace. Finally, in the context of improving the AM process to achieving stringent precision requirements by designing robust control strategies for the widespread adoption of AM technologies in the industrial sector, we proposed modal approximation based control strategies for the physical processes modelled by a reaction-diffusion equation. Heat flow is an important parameter of the AM process to achieve the high quality of the product. The systems where heat is produced and diffuses away from the heat production site are described by reaction-diffusion equations. First, we proposed state feedback control for a reaction-diffusion equation with a state delay in the reaction term. Then, to enhance the pragmatic feasibility of our proposed control design approach for practical application, we designed a finite-dimensional observer-based control strategy for the output feedback stabilization and setpoint regulation of a reaction-diffusion equation cascaded with an Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE). We showed that the control design strategies achieve both the exponential stabilization as well as the setpoint regulation of both the systems.
  • Publication
    On Design for Additive Manufacturing: Review of Challenges and Opportunities utilising Visualisation Technologies
    Design for additive manufacturing poses new challenges and opportunities for manufacturers to produce highly customised parts while reducing cost, production time and improving quality. Manufacturing constraints of conventional manufacturing methods, such as geometric complexity limitations and workpiece handling, have shaped the landscape of computer-aided design tools, which are therefore not suitably adapted to design for additive manufacturing. Furthermore, computer-aided design tools require a high level of training to produce appropriate models. Augmented reality and feedback technologies pose an interesting opportunity for design for additive manufacturing, whereby the interaction with 3D models in an augmented or virtual design space can provide intuitive feedback to engineers and designers, providing fast validation of designs, parametric modelling and opportunities for training and use in both professional and amateur designer communities. This paper will explore and review the opportunities this exciting new technology provides.
      337Scopus© Citations 7