Now showing 1 - 10 of 131
  • Publication
    Technical note: Food texture-modification of the shear press using a strain gauge system
    The shear press is an instrument for measuring food texture (Kramer, Burkhardt &Rogers, 1951). The original model was introduced in 1950 and it was later modified for electrical indicating and recording (Decker et al., 1957). A new more versatile and precise model was introduced in 1956 (Kramer & Twigg, 1958). In this instrument force is measured by a maximum-reading dial gauge fitted across the vertical diameter of a proving ring. If time-force texture graphs are required, a transducer can be fitted across the ring in place of the dial gauge to give a print-out on a strip chart as the sample is tested. This note reports an alternative and relatively cheap system for converting a dial reading shear press to a recording model. Strain gauges are attached to the proving ring and the electrical output is amplified and is recorded on a strip chart in the form of a texturegram. The dial gauge remains in place to indicate maximum deflection. The system is simple and easy to construct.
  • Publication
    Analysis of Tomato Fruit: Effect of Frozen Storage on Compositional Values- an Inter-laboratory Study
    Tomato culturing trials often result in too many samples to analyse while fresh. The most common technique is to seal them in containers and preserve them by deepfreezing for subsequent analysis. An inter-laboratory study has been made of the effect of freezing for various lengths of time on a number of compositional factors. Tests for soluble solids, dry matter content, electrical conductivity, titratable acidity, potassium, pH, glucose, fructose, sucrose, total N and Vitamin C in frozen tomatoes indicated that the levels of most of these constituents remained relatively constant during frozen storage and were similar to values found in the fruit prior to freezing. When the tomatoes were frozen as a purée it was essential to thaw them in the stabilising/ extracting solution used in the Vitamin C analytical procedure, otherwise there was a large loss in ascorbic acid.
  • Publication
    Wealth from fish processing effluents
    (University College Dublin. School of Agriculture and Food Science, 2015-11)
  • Publication
    Feeding the Recovery: FoodDrinkEurope leads the way
    FoodDrinkEurope represents Europe’s food and drink industry and has as its members 25 national food federations, 26 European food sectors and 19 companies. Its mission is to facilitate the development of an environment in which all of Europe’s food and drink companies, whatever their size, can meet the needs of consumers and society, while competing effectively for sustainable growth ( FoodDrinkEurope evolved from the CIAA (Confédération des Industries Agro-Alimentaire de l’EU, which was established in 1982 and became FoodDrinkEurope in 2011.
  • Publication
    Inherent functionality:-a useful term for consumer information?
    Functional foods are broadly defined as those that offer 'something extra' in terms of health benefits than the basic food item, e.g. probiotic-enriched yoghurt versus ordinary yoghurt. The term functional food, by its very nature, tends to suggest that other foods are not functional and have less health benefit relative to functional foods. This is far from fact as many animal and plant foods are highly beneficial for health 'as consumed' and possess inherent functionality. The term inherent fimctionality is stronger than the term naturally present used to describe health-promoting constituents occurring naturally in foods such as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in dairy or meat products. The author suggests, therefore, that inherent functionality is a term needed for consumer information in that foods of the same type may differ in their inherent functionality and scientists/technologists/consumers should be aware of this. This can be demonstrated using many examples such as taurine in fish, antioxidants and dietary fibre in fruit and vegetables, antioxidants in olive oil, CLA in animal products, and phytosterols in grains; some of these are discussed below. These naturally-present substances are in addition to the traditional nutrients, i.e. carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals.
  • Publication
    Condition Factor, Fat Content and Flavour of Farmed and Wild Salmon
    Tests on 882 salmon (587 farmed and 295 wild) indicated that the condition factor (CF) is a useful and easily-measured quality index for salmon, especially when combined with data for skin colour.and fat content. Wild salmon were better conditioned than farmed, and CF values of >0.90 are desirable for gutted salmon (wild and farmed) and > 0.96 and >0.98 for gut-in wild and farmed fish, respectively. Wild salmon had a slightly lower mean fat content than farmed (12.3 vs 12.5%) but showed more variation in fat content. Tests on three spot samples indicated that taste panels were unable to detect a statistically significant flavour difference between farmed and wild salmon. Comprehensive details of the procedures and results are given below.
  • Publication
    Measuring CO2 in air using glass sample tubes and GC
    (United Trade Press, London, 1976)
    A simple system for measuring CO2 in air using glass sample tubes fitted with Buty rubber Suba-seal stoppers is described. A 1 ml aliquot is taken from the tube and is injected directly onto a gas chromatograph. The sample tubes and stoppers were adequately leak proof to CO2 and can be sent through the post to a central testing laboratory. The system has applications in agriculture and air conditioning studies and was used to measure the CO2 level in the air in glasshouses, a poultry unit, a conference room, an aircraft, and in other locations.
  • Publication
    The Taurine Story
    (University College Dublin. School of Agriculture and Food Science, 2013-04)
  • Publication
    Comparison of Taste Panel Results from Supermarket and Laboratory Panels
    (Academic Press Limited, 1989)
    Laboratory taste panel tests on foods generate many useful data which are used/interpreted in a number of ways. One use is to get preliminary information on the possible appeal or level of acceptability of a particular food or food product to consumers. The reliability of such data is open to debate and it can be argued that the only way to get information on consumer acceptability is by doing a full scale consumer panel. The reasons for carrying out this study were threefold. Firstly, supermarket panels gave unexpectedly high flavour scores (in relation to fruit composition values) to late season tomato fruit in preliminary tests carried out in this laboratory (1). Secondly, there is little published information (2)on the direct comparison of laboratory and consumer panels, and thirdly, this topic was pinpointed at EEC agro-food workshops as one worthy of investigation. Having said this, the current study is only a modest start to a much wider range of tests on different food products needed to investigate more fully the relationship between laboratory and consumer taste panels. This study was carried out as part of the ongoing Agro-Food Programme (1984-1988) of the Standing Committee for Agricultural Research of the Commission of the European Communities (3) and provided useful data in an area where there is a paucity of published information (2).
  • Publication
    Fish for Health and Life
    (University College Dublin. School of Agriculture and Food Science, 2012-01)